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Public Forward Detector Plots for Collision Data

Introduction

The following approved plots can be shown by ATLAS speakers at conferences and similar events.
Please do not add figures on your own. Contact the responsible project leader in case of questions and/or suggestions.

AFP figures

Plots from RUN2 approved on Feb 23rd 2017
Cumulative luminosity versus time delivered to (green) and recorded by ATLAS (yellow) and AFP (blue) during stable beams for pp collisions at 13 TeV centre-of-mass energy in 2017. The delivered luminosity accounts for luminosity delivered from the start of stable beams until the LHC requests ATLAS to put the detector in a safe standby mode to allow for a beam dump or beam studies. The ATLAS recorded luminosity reflects the DAQ inefficiency, as well as the inefficiency of the so-called warm start: when the stable beam flag is raised, the tracking detectors undergo a ramp of the high-voltage and, for the pixel system, turning on the preamplifiers. Shown is the luminosity as determined from counting rates measured by the luminosity detectors. The luminosity shown represents a preliminary 13 TeV luminosity calibration for the 2017 data based on van-der-Meer beam-separation scans in 2017. The blue area reflects time period in which AFP was inserted and recorded data together with ATLAS.

Plots from RUN2 approved on May 23rd 2016
Caption: Trigger rates sent from the AFP detector at nominal 20 sigma position from the beam as a function of number of colliding bunches during LHC luminosity ramp up after YETS 2015-2016.

Caption: Number of raw unclustered pixel hits in arbitrary units of a tracker plane in the Near Station side C (205 m from the ATLAS interaction point) in the AFP detector in linear (left) and logarithmic scale (right). Distances are in the local reference frame of the plane. The data was taken during the beam-based alignment (19th of April 2016) at nominal 5 sigma + 400 μm position from the beam. The trigger was set as a logic AND of Near and Far station. The diagonal line corresponds to the detected diffractive protons.

Caption: Number of raw unclustered pixel hits in arbitrary units of a tracker plane in the Near Station side C (205 m from the ATLAS interaction point) in the AFP detector in linear (left) and logarithmic scale (right). Distances are in the local reference frame of the plane. The data was taken during the beam-based alignment (19th of April 2016) at nominal 5 sigma + 400 μm position from the beam. The trigger was set as a logic AND of Near and Far station. The diagonal line corresponds to the detected diffractive protons.

Caption: Correlation of raw unclustered pixel hits between two consecutive tracker planes in the Near Station side C (205 m from the ATLAS interaction point) in the AFP detector, in events with maximally 2 hits per plane. The data was taken during the beam-based alignment (19th of April 2016) at nominal 5 sigma + 400 μm position from the beam. The trigger was set as a logic AND of Near and Far station.

Caption: Number of raw unclustered pixel hits in arbitrary units of a tracker plane in the Near Station side C (205 m from the ATLAS interaction point) in the AFP detector in linear (left) and logarithmic scale (right). Distances are in the local reference frame of the plane. The data was taken during the loss maps (20th of April 2016) at nominal 20 sigma position from the beam. The trigger was set as a logic AND of Near and Far station. The diagonal line corresponds to the detected diffractive protons. Note that during loss maps the beam was moved with respect to its nominal position.

Caption: Number of raw unclustered pixel hits per event of a tracker plane in the Near Station side C (205 m from the ATLAS interaction point) in the AFP detector. The data was taken during the loss maps (20th of April 2016) at nominal 20 sigma position from the beam. The trigger was set as a logic AND of Near and Far station. The tracker planes were installed at a tilt of 14 (in x-direction) so that each particle is expected to typically fire 2 pixels. Note that during loss maps the beam was moved with respect to its nominal position.

Caption: Correlation of raw unclustered pixel hits between two consecutive tracker planes in the Near Station side C (205 m from the ATLAS interaction point) in the AFP detector, in events with maximally 2 hits per plane. The data was taken during the loss maps (20th of April 2016) at nominal 20 sigma position from the beam. The trigger was set as a logic AND of Near and Far station. Note that during loss maps the beam was moved with respect to its nominal position.

Caption: Number of raw unclustered pixel hits in arbitrary units of a tracker plane in the Near Station side C (205 m from the ATLAS interaction point) in the AFP detector in linear (left) and logarithmic scale (right). Distances are in the local reference frame of the plane. The data was taken during the 300 bunches LHC intensity ramp-up step (10th of May 2016) at nominal 20 sigma position from the beam. AFP was triggered by ATLAS triggers. The diagonal line corresponds to the detected diffractive protons.

Caption: Number of raw unclustered pixel hits per event of a tracker plane in the Near Station side C (205 m from the ATLAS interaction point) in the AFP detector. The data was taken during the 300 bunches LHC intensity ramp-up step (10th of May 2016) at nominal 20 sigma position from the beam. AFP was triggered by ATLAS triggers. The tracker planes were installed at a tilt of 14 (in x-direction) so that each particle is expected to typically fire 2 pixels.

Caption: Correlation of raw unclustered pixel hits between two consecutive tracker planes in the Near Station side C (205 m from the ATLAS interaction point) in the AFP detector, in events with maximally 2 hits per plane. The data was taken during the 300 bunches LHC intensity ramp-up step (10th of May 2016) at nominal 20 sigma position from the beam. AFP was triggered by ATLAS triggers.

Simulation plots approved for TDR on June 2015
Some general comments: AFP simulation is based on the Hamburg Beam Pipe (HBP) setup which consists of two HBPs per ATLAS side: inner station with Silicon Detector and outer station with Silicon and two Timing Detectors

The design will change in the future to Roman Pots (RP) setup and different layout of Timing Detectors. It is expected this will reduce the material scattering effects.

Primary events are generated using HERWIG++ and H1 2007 Jets Pomeron PDF (Double Pomeron Exchange jets with 20 < pTjet < 80 GeV filter cut)

Pile-up events are generated using PYTHIA8 and A2MSTW2008LO PDF (Minimum Bias with Elastic and Single+Double Diffractive processes)

No cuts on diffractive protons kinematics are made

Caption: Schematic sketch of the AFP stations. Inner stations are placed at z = 204 m (AFP 204) while the outer at z = 212 m (AFP 212) from the ATLAS Interaction Point.



Caption: Cross section of the outer (AFP 212) Hamburg Beam Pipe model, with 6-layer Silicon Detector and a pair of 8-bar Timing Detectors. Pipe element on the left is the beam entrance.



Caption: x-y track positions hitmap for outer SiD station before track matching included for outer (AFP 212) station. Positions are calculated in the ATLAS Coordinate System. Tracks matched between inner and outer SiD stations are considered. μ = 1 scenario is shown.



Caption: x-y track positions hitmap for outer SiD station after track matching included for outer (AFP 212) station. Positions are calculated in the ATLAS Coordinate System. Tracks matched between inner and outer SiD stations are considered. μ = 1 scenario is shown.



Caption: Reconstructed track multiplicity in AFP Silicon Detector (SiD) for inner (AFP 204) station before the track matching is included. Events are generated without any cut on the proton kinematics (i.e. ξ < 1). Approximately 50% of protons in the sample do not enter the AFP acceptance region (0.015 < ξ < 0.15) which results in no reconstructed track. Different pile-up scenarios are presented.



Caption: Reconstructed track multiplicity in AFP Silicon Detector (SiD) for outer (AFP 212) station before the track matching is included. Events are generated without any cut on the proton kinematics (i.e. ξ < 1). Approximately 50% of protons in the sample do not enter the AFP acceptance region (0.015 < ξ < 0.15) which results in no reconstructed track. Different pile-up scenarios are presented.



Caption: Proton track reconstruction efficiency for different pile-up scenarios as a function of proton relative energy loss. Tracks matched between the inner (AFP 204) and outer (AFP 212) stations are included. Events with track multiplicity ≤ 2 in inner and track multiplicity ≤ 5 in outer station are considered.



Caption: Reconstructed track x position resolution for outer (AFP 212) station. Flat shape is caused by non-staggered detector layers. The pixel size is 50 μm in x and 250 μm in y. μ = 1 scenario is shown.



ALFA figures

Plots approved from RUN1
The relative resolution for different reconstruction methods. The dotted line shows the resolution without contribution from detector resolution, accounting only for beam effects. It is the same for all methods.

β*= 90m run

The following 6 Figures (identified by BH-xx) contain plots of the LHC beam halo background rates recorded the ALFA sub-detector in a special run during LHC fill 2232 with a dedicated optics β⋆ = 90m in October 2011. The ALFA set-up consists of 4 Roman Pot detectors on each side of the ATLAS interaction point at a distance of 240m which are used to measure the spatial distribution of the halo background.

Beam Halo Background Rates

The background rates were determined by requesting a first level trigger signal from a single ALFA detector, a reconstructed track in two subsequent detectors at one side with a veto on all six other detectors, in order to reject elastic events originating from interactions. Single diffractive events were suppressed by imposing a veto on the Minimum Bias detectors MBTS, LUCID, ZDC at the first level trigger stage and a veto on the TE20 trigger (total transverse energy sum from calorimeters above 20 GeV threshold). The background rate density is normalized to the current in each bunch group per beam, distinguishing between the single bunch of nominal current on one side and the group of 13 pilot bunches with small currents on the other side.

Figure BH-1: the background halo rate density is shown as a function of the vertical coordinate for the nominal bunch and for all eight ALFA Roman Pot detectors. The detectors were placed at a distance of about 5.5mm from the beam centre. The detectors B7L1 are located at the A-side of ATLAS at a distance of 241m from IP1, the detectors A7L1 at 237m, the detectors A7R1 resp. B7R1 are at the Cside at distances of 237m resp. 241m, and labels U resp. L denote the upper and lower detectors.



β*= 90m run

Figure BH-2: Beam halo background rates as function of the horizontal coordinate for a bunch of nominal intensity.



β*= 90m run

Figure BH-3: Beam halo background rates as function of the vertical coordinate for the group of pilot bunches.Despite the fact that the bunch intensities of the pilot bunches are only 20-30% larger than for the pilot bunches, the rate is larger by a factor of about 10 and the shape of the halo in particular in the horizontal plane is very different, indicating that the halo is composed of several distinct contributions.



β*= 90m run

Figure BH-4: Beam halo background rates as function of the horizontal coordinate for the group of pilot bunches.



β*= 90m run

Figure BH-5: Beam halo background rates as function of the vertical coordinate comparing the nominal bunch with the pilot bunches for four selected ALFA detectors.



β*= 90m run

Figure BH-6: Beam halo background rates as function of the horizontal coordinate comparing the nominal bunch with the pilot bunches for four selected ALFA detectors.



β*= 90m run

The following 4 plots (Figure ED-xx) display events recorded by the ALFA sub-detector in a special run during LHC fill 2232 with a dedicated optics β* = 90m in October 2011 for a measurement of elastic scattering. The ALFA set-up consists of 4 Roman Pot detectors on each side of the ATLAS interaction point at a distance of 240m. Elastic events are produced in a back-to-back topology and are usually reconstructed in 4 detectors, two on each side. In some cases a hadronic shower develops by interaction with the material of e.g. the inner Roman Pot, preventing the proton trajectory reconstruction in the outer detector and leading to a loss of efficiency. Elastic events may also be accompained by an additional proton track from beam halo protons or single diffraction.

Event Display

Each ALFA detector consists of 10 double-sided plates with 64 scintillating fibres per side arranged in U/V-geometry. In the event displays for all eight ALFA detectors the fibre hits are shown in both U- and V-projections, the hits associated to a reconstructed track are marked by a black dot and the non- associated hits by a green dot. In addition the fibre multiplicities and track coordinates in the plane transverse to the proton trajectory are indicated. Golden elastic events consist of two back-to-back protons with tracks in a pair of upper detectors on the C-side and in a pair of lower detectors at the A-side, or vice versa. This configuration of four detectors is called an arm. A proton will hit ideally 20 fibres per detector, but the observed average fibre multiplicity is increased to 23 by cross-talk. An example of a golden elastic event in shown in Figure ED-1. In Figure ED-2 an elastic event is shown where an additional track potentially originating from beam halo or single diffration is observed on one side. With the present reconstruction scheme only one track is reconstructed per detector and additional tracks are discarded. The selection of the track is based on the number of fibres associated to the track and the width of the overlap of the selected fibres, which may entail that no track is reconstructed in multi-track events. A typical event leading to an inefficiency is shown in Figure ED-3, where a clear elastic signature is observed in 3 detectors but in the fourth outer detector a hadronic interaction occured leading to a particle cascade with high multiplicity and no track reconstructed. Although the luminosity of this special run was low and hence the mean number of interactions per bunch crossing with about 0.03 very small compared to standard operations, a few exotic events are observed compatible with a pile-up of two elastic events or an elastic event with a single diffraction event. Such a candidate is shown in Figure ED-4, where hits are observed in all detectors, associated in one arm to the tracks of elastic protons and no track being reconstructed in the second arm, while in the latter case the hit pattern is compatible with a pile-up of even two elastic events.

Figure ED-1: ALFA event display for an elastic event with a clean proton track in the two detectors on each side of the interaction point.



β*= 90m run

Figure ED-2: ALFA event display for an elastic event with a clean proton track in the two detectors at the C-side, while to the elastic proton on the A-side a track from a halo or di ffractive proton is overlayed.



β*= 90m run

Figure ED-3: ALFA event display for an elastic event with a clean proton track in the two detectors at the A-side, while on the C-side the proton track is reconstructed in the inner detector only and a hadronic shower is observed in the outer detector.



β*= 90m run

Figure ED-4: ALFA event display for an exotic event with a golden elastic event in one arm of ALFA and an elastic candidate also in the other arm supplemented by a halo track.



The following 9 Figures contain performance figures for the ALFA sub-detector from a special run in October 2011 with a dedicated optics of β* = 90m for a measurement of elastic scattering. The data were taken in a combined mode with ALFA and the central ATLAS detector. The presented performance plots correspond to the entire statistics of about 80 b-1 of recorded luminosity.

Scattering angle correlations

In Figure 1 the correlation between reconstructed scattering angle using the proton tracks on the right and left side of IP1 is shown for the vertical and horizontal component separately. All elastic candidates defined by the back-to-back topology are included in this sample, which also contains a fraction of accidental halo events. In Figure 2 the scattering angle measurements from the left and right side are combined and the correlation between the horizontal and vertical scattering angle component is shown. In elastic scattering the vertical and horizontal scattering angle distributions are expected to be equal, as can be observed in the symmetric pattern in the correlation of the scattering angle components shown in Figure 2 Cuts are applied in the following to sharpen the elastic topology and suppress the background. The cuts are applied on the proton position correlation at the left and right side and on the correlation between the horizontal track coordinate and the horizontal track angle measured between two detectors on each side, which were found to be most discriminative against non-elastic background. The effect of the background suppression is illustrated in Figure 3 for the left-right scattering angle correlation and in Figure 4 for the horizontal-vertical scattering angle correlation.

ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m (RUN OCTOBER 2011).

Figure 1: Reconstructed scattering angle correlation between left and right side for elastic candidates before background rejection cuts a) in the vertical and b) in the horizontal plane.



ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m (RUN OCTOBER 2011).

Figure 2: Reconstructed scattering angle correlation between vertical and horizontal planes combining the left and right arm of ALFA, before background rejection cuts.



ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m (RUN OCTOBER 2011).

Figure 3: Reconstructed scattering angle correlation between left and right side for elastic candidates after background rejection cuts a) in the vertical and b) in the horizontal plane.



ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m (RUN OCTOBER 2011).

Figure 4: Reconstructed scattering angle correlation between vertical and horizontal planes combining the left and right arm of ALFA, after background rejection cuts.



Alignment

The final check of the alignment is done using the so-called global tracks in the vertical plane. The back- to-back topology of the elastics events is used to build out of the two outgoing protons a single track. This track will go through the four detectors constituting an arm, i.e. the two upper detectors on side A and the two lower detectors on side C constitute Arm 1368 while Arm 2457 is built of the two lower detectors on side A and the two upper detectors on side C. The lever arm represents the distance at which the proton would be intercepted at the same vertical position in absence of any magnetic elements. Consequently, the detectors are placed at this distance in order to mimic a straight track. Finally each track is fitted and the residual plots shown in figures from 5 to 8. The mean value of the fitted distributions demonstrate a percision on the relative positioning better than 5 microns. The figure 9 displays for the two detection arms the intercept of the fitted global tracks at s=0. i.e. the ATLAS interaction point. The mean value show an absolute alignment precision in the order of 10 microns. The width of the distribution shows the impact of the angular divergence, i.e. the deviation of the global track from a straight line.

ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m (RUN OCTOBER 2011).

Figure 5: Residual plots for the two ALFA detectors of station B7L1 on side C. The mean value of the gaussian fit shows the precision of the relative alignment between all detectors. The precision is consequently better than 5 m.



ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m (RUN OCTOBER 2011).

Figure 6: Residual plots for the two ALFA detectors of station A7L1 on side C. The mean value of the gaussian fit shows the precision of the relative alignment between all detectors. The precision is consequently better than 5 m.



ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m (RUN OCTOBER 2011).

Figure 7: Residual plots for the two ALFA detectors of station A7R1 on side A. The mean value of the gaussian fit shows the precision of the relative alignment between all detectors. The precision is consequently better than 5 m.



ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m (RUN OCTOBER 2011).

Figure 8: Residual plots for the two ALFA detectors of station B7R1 on side A. The mean value of the gaussian fit shows the precision of the relative alignment between all detectors. The precision is consequently better than 5 m.



ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m (RUN OCTOBER 2011).

Figure 9: Distribution of the track intercept at the ATLAS interaction point. The deviation from zero shows an absolute precision on the positioning with respect to the beam in the order of 10 m.



First track candidates for the four detectors on side A. The figure represent the event display with the first track canditates for each detector. Shown is the index of hit fibres as a function of the layer index for U- and V-projections of the fibres which are inclined by +- 45 degrees to the vertical direction. The activity seen in the ALFA detectors is mainly coming from showers induced by the interaction of the beam with the beam pipe. Also visible on these figures are the hits related to the electronic noise and all kind of cross talk. The poor track images observed for RP1 and RP6 are related to the non-optimized trigger timing which is still to be done. The track reconstruction is based on an overlap of fibre hits in a narrow forward cone parallel to the beam axis. For each projection, U and V, the number of active layer must be greater than five and all layers must have less than five active fibres. All the detectors were in garage position, which for the upper detectors (odd numbers) corresponds to ~ 41-42 mm distance to the beam center, whereas for the lower detectors (even numbers) it was ~ 44 mm. The data taking was performed in so-called parasitic mode spying on events by ATLAS L1A triggers. In this mode the fraction of events with tracks or showers is on the level of about 3%.

First track candidates for the four detectors on side C.

Reconstructed track density observed in the four ALFA detectors on side A. The figure represent the map of the reconstructed tracks. To be reconstructed, in addition to the selection criteria mentioned above, a track must be composed of at least five overlapping hit fibres for each projection. Consequently, the more perpendicular is the track to the detector, the greater is its reconstruction probability. The highest density is clearly seen at the edge of the detector toward the beam centre. The density difference observed at the edge between the upper and lower detectors can be explained by the slightly different positions in respect to the beam center. The red line indicates the geometrical acceptance. Multiple tracks entail fake hits outside the fiducial volume.

Reconstructed track density observed in the four ALFA detectors on side C.

ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m.

The following ALFA performance plots result from the offline analysis of the ATLAS RUN 184206, taken at June 28th in 2011.

The data taking was performed with a β* = 90m optics, 2 colliding bunches with 1 and 2 E10 particles and all ALFA detectors in a distance of 10σ (about 7 mm) to the nominal beam trajectory. With the minimum bias trigger of an OR of the signals from all 8 detectors about 140.000 events were recorded in standalone TDAQ mode. Track reconstruction within the Athena code required at least 5 out of 10 fiber hits per projection.

In this first Figure the track maps of all particles passing the 2 ALFA fiber detectors in station B7L1 at ATLAS side A is reported both for the main detectors (MD) and the overlap detectors (OD). The composition of tracks consists of particles from beam gas interactions, protons from the beam halo and elastically scattered protons.



ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m.

In this first Figure the track maps of all particles passing the 2 ALFA fiber detectors in station A7L1 at ATLAS side A is reported both for the MDs and the ODs. The composition of tracks consists of particles from beam gas interactions, protons from the beam halo and elastically scattered protons.



ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m.

Track maps of golden elastic events with a coincidence in the upper (lower) detectors on side A and the lower (upper) detectors on side C. Shown are track maps in station B7L1 with scattered particles from beam 2. Due to the above mentioned analysis constraints there are no reconstructed tracks in the ODs.



ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m.

Track maps of golden elastic events with a coincidence in the upper (lower) detectors on side A and the lower (upper) detectors on side C. Shown are track maps in station A7L1 with scattered particles from beam 2. Due to the above mentioned analysis constraints there are no reconstructed tracks in the ODs.



ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m.

Correlation plot of elastically scattered protons on both sides of the interaction point. Shown are the average Y-coordinates of the A and C sides. The Y-coordinate is proportional to the scattering angle at the IP. In this respect the plot is a clear proofs of the elastic back- to-back event topology at the IP. The width of the correlation line is related to the angular spread at the IP and missing corrections concerning the detector positions.



ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m.

Simulated track maps of elastic events for the β* 90m optics. Events were generated by PHYTIA8 and the transport from ATLAS to the ALFA stations at 241 m distance to the IP performed by the MADX matrix program. Just the positions of passing protons are shown - no reconstruction algorithm was applied. For illustration also tracks points outside the geometrical acceptance are shown.



ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m.

Simulated track maps of diffractive events for the β* 90m optics. Events were generated by PHYTIA8 and the transport from ATLAS to the ALFA stations at 241 m distance to the IP performed by the MADX matrix program. Just the positions of passing protons are shown - no reconstruction algorithm was applied. For illustration also tracks points outside the geometrical acceptance are shown.



ALFA performance plots at β*= 90m.

The back-to-back correlation of protons on both sides of the interaction point is the direct evidence for the observation of elastic events. Shown is the scattering angle in the vertical plane reconstructed at either side of the interaction point using the vertical coordinate and the lever arm calculated from the beam optics. The resolution of the angle Θ*y is further improved by taking the difference between the left and right measurement, whereby the unknown contribution from the vertex position is cancelled.



β*= 90m run

The track patterns in all stations for run 191366. About 10 million triggers were recorded with the minimum bias trigger condition when any detector can trigger the read out. All tracks are shown in the LHC beam coordinate system with a preliminary track-based alignment. All ALFA Roman pots were placed in a distance of 6.5 sigma, about 5 mm, to the beam. The stations A7L1 and A7R1 are located in a distance of 237m to the IP, the other two stations are more far at 241m.



β*= 90m run

The track patterns of candidates of elastic scattering for run 191366 in the LHC beam coordinate system with a preliminary alignment. Only events with reconstructed tracks in all 4 stations were selected. Closer to the center of the beam a significant contribution of accidental beam-beam background combinations is visible.



β*= 90m run

For run 191366 the position correlation of all elastic event candidates. The upper plots show the correlation of X and Y coordinates of combinations from the stations at 237m distance to IP. The lower plots are made for combinations from the stations in 241m distance to IP. As expected due to the beam optics the correlation band is more pronounced in the Y-coordinate.



β*= 90m run

The distances between upper and lower detectors in each station obtained from the differences of Y-coordinates of the same track in the upper and lower overlap detectors. The differences are measured at both sides +X and –X of the main detectors. The data were collected from runs 191367, 191377, 191382, 191383 with 5 million triggers from overlap detector plus run 191366 with 10 million triggers from main or overlap detectors.



β*= 90m run

Statistics of ALFA related trigger items for the combined ATLAS run 191373. The plot compiles the pre-scaled entries from enabled trigger items (blue) and the input rate of all disabled trigger items (red). The pre-scale values are inserted as thin bars (green) in the bins related to the trigger items. A pre-scale factor 1 was used for the elastic triggers, a factor 20 for diffractive triggers and a factor 100 for the minimum bias trigger. In addition a few trigger items for systematic investigations were enabled, e.g. for unpaired bunches.



LUCID figures

Plots from RUN2 approved on May 29th 2015
Digitized pulse shape of a signal from one of the photomultipliers in the A-arm of the LUCID detector during a run recorded on the 10th of June 2015 at √s = 13 TeV. The polarity of the pulse is inverted. The FADCs measures the pulse amplitude in time bins that are 3.125 ns long. The duration of the pulse is less than 25 ns, which will be important when LHC starts running with a colliding-bunch spacing as short as 25 ns.

Bunch-by-bunch hit counts measured by a single LUCID photomultiplier as a function of the bunch-crossing number during a 13 TeV ru n recorded on June 14, 2015 (LHC fill 3858). The LHC was filled with 38 colliding bunches. The large peaks correspond to six trains of six colliding bunches each, plus two isolated colliding bunches. The two smaller peaks are due to single-beam background produced by bunch trains that do not collide at the ATLAS interaction point. The baseline background level, four orders of magnitude below the collision rate, is associated with the Bi-207 source used for monitoring the photomultiplier gain.

Pulse-height distributions from a LUCID photomultiplier recorded in 13 TeV runs on June 11 and 13, 2015 (blue) and in a calibration run recorded on June 25, 2015 (red). The physics runs were recorded using a random trigger, while the calibration run imposed a trigger-threshold requirement. The position of the peak created by Cherenkov photons produced in the quartz window of the photomultipliers is similar for high-energy particles from LHC collisions and low-energy electrons from the Bi-207 source. The vertical scale is set by the statistics of the low-μ run which has the smallest number of counts. The Bi-207 distribution has been arbitrary scaled down to a similar level.

Pulse-height distributions from a LUCID photomultiplier during a 13 TeV low-μ run recorded on June 11, 2015 (red) and during a high-μ run recorded on June 13, 2015 (blue). The pulse height is shifted towards higher values when at high luminosity several particles traverse the photomultiplier window in the same bunch crossing.

Pulse-height distributions from a LUCID photomultiplier during a 13 TeV low-μ run recorded on June 11, 2015 (red) and during a high-μ run recorded on June 13, 2015 (blue). The pulse height is shifted towards higher values when at high luminosity several particles traverse the photomultiplier window in the same bunch crossing. (The same plot as in the Figure above but with a logarithmic vertical scale.)

Fractional difference in measured luminosity between the forward (A) and backward (C) arms of the LUCID detector. These ATLAS runs cover the LHC startup period from the end of May to July 8, 2015. The gap reflects the combination of a technical stop and of the scrubbing period, during which no collisions took place. The agreement between the two LUCID arms is better than 1%..

History of the average number of inelastic pp collisions per bunch crossing during LHC fill 3858, as reported by the BCM, LUCID and TILE luminometers in ATLAS.

Ratio of the average number of inelastic pp collisions per bunch crossing measured by different ATLAS luminometers, to that reported by the forward (A) arm of the LUCID detector. The backward arm of LUCID (LUCID-ORC), the LUCID coincidence algorithm (LUCID-AND), as well as the luminosity determined using the phototube currents in the TILE calorimeter are consistent within 0.4% or better. The BCM detector appears to underestimate the luminosity by as much as 2 % early in the fill. This discrepancy slowly decreases as the luminosity decays over time.

Measured mean charge in calibration runs using the Bi-207 sources. The measurements were performed by the photomultiplier tubes in the forward (A) arm of the LUCID detector. The charge is normalized to 1 for a run on the 11th of June. The mean charge is proportional to the gain of the photomultipliers and a change of 10% for all four tubes results in a change of 1% of the measured luminosity.

The measured number of OR-events by the LUCID fiber detector as a function of the bunch crossing number during one luminosity block in a fill with 13 TeV collisions recorded on the 21th of May 2015. The collisions were in the first bunch crossing and the inset plot shows that most of the counts are indeed recorded for the first BCID.

The measured number of AND-events by the LUCID fiber detector as a function of the bunch crossing number during one luminosity block in a fill with 13 TeV collisions recorded on the 21th of May 2015. The collisions were in the first bunch crossing and the inset plot shows that most of the counts are indeed recorded for the first BCID. This plot has not a single count except for BCID = 1 and this demonstrates how the AND requirement rejects background events and how LUCID is able to measure collisions within a single 25 ns time window.

The average number of pp-interactions per bunch crossing (mu) measured by LUCID as a function of the luminosity block in a 13 TeV commissioning run recorded on the 21th of May 2015. The mu value was measured by 4 standard Hamamatsu R760 photomultipliers in OR-mode on side C of ATLAS as well as by 4 modified photomultipliers. These modified photomultipliers have a thin aluminium ring between the quartz window and the photocathode in order to reduce the acceptance. The inset plot shows the ratio of the mu values measured by the two detectors. The calibration was obtained from a GEANT Monte Carlo simulation of LUCID in ATLAS and the measured mu for the detector with modified photomultipliers agreed to within 12% with the mu measured with the detector using standard photomultipliers. This difference between two Monte Carlo calibrations in a commissioning run like this is in line with previous experience where Monte Carlo calibrations typically has not achieved a precision better than 20%. All errors in the plot are statistical only.

The pulseheight distribution from one photomultiplier in the LUCID detector during a 13 TeV run recorded on the 21th of May 2015. The Cerenkov light created in the quartz window of the photomultiplier produces a clear peak in the amplitude distribution that has been fitted by a Gaussian distribution (in red). Only signals above a threshold defining a particle hit are plotted in the figure.

Number of hits in a single LUCID photomultiplier during data-taking with beam splash events in ATLAS in April 2015. The hits from the beamsplashes are all recorded at the time of a single bunch crossing which illustrates the potential of the new LUCID to measure luminosity for individual bunch crossing when LHC will run with a 25 ns bunch spacing. One can also see hits in the figure from the radioactive Bi-207 source which is used for monitoring the photomultiplier gain and which are seen at all times.

The number of LUCID events recorded with the OR-algorithm during the 900 GeV collision run in May 2015 as a function of 1 minute long luminosity blocks. The observed decrease in event rate was observed also by other luminosity detectors in ATLAS.

Plots approved from RUN1
The LUCID detector is composed by 16 PMTs and 4 fiber bundles readout by PMTs, deployed around the beam pipe symmetrically at about 17m distance with respect to the ATLAS IP. The readout of the 16 PMT provides the baseline system for luminosity algorithms, while the 4 fiber bundles readout by PMT placed in a non highly irradiated area represent the backup readout soluIon (under study for future development). The top plot shows the mean number of interactions per bunch crossing (μ) obtained from the total charge integrated over one BCID by a fiber channel versus the value measured by BCM (red circles) compared to the value obtained with a standard luminosity algorithm (blue triangles). The correlaIon between the μ value obtained with charge integraIon and the one with BCM is linear up to high μ values. The bottom plot shows the ratio data over fit of the two methods: the hit counting algorithm shows μ dependencies while the charge integration doesnt present any effect. The black line at the ordinate value 1 is used as a guide to the eye. The measured data spread around the linear fit is within + 2.5% for the charge integration method.

A typical photomultiplier signal recorded by the flash ADC system. The FADC provides 80 samplings with 4 ns intervals.

A typical time distribution of the fitted peak position of the signal from one photomultiplier as measured by the flash ADC system. The time is here measured with respect to the arrival of the bunch crossing signal but with an arbitrary zero time in the plot. The tail in the distribution is caused by secondary particles with a slightly longer flight path than the primary particles.

The time distribution of signals from the discriminators. Each column in the plot shows the time distribution of the signals from one photomultiplier. The measurement was done with the local LUCID trigger logic (LUMAT) that has the ability to record the time of its input signals in eight 3.2 ns bins. The plot shows how well the timing of the signals from the 32 tubes is aligned in time. Two tubes were not working during this measurement and did not record any signals.

The relationship between the amplitude recorded by the FADC and the charge measured by the QDC. The charge has been converted to the number of photo electrons produced in the photomultiplier. A primary particle with a momentum above the Cherenkov threshold that goes through the full length of the cherenkov tube typically produces 110 photoelectrons and it can be seen in the figure that the saturation of the pulseheight measurement starts at around 150 photoelectrons.

An example of a charge distribution recorded at 7 TeV by the QDC. The charge has been converted to the number of photo electrons produced in the photomultiplier. The data was recorded using the single side trigger that requires at least one hit anywhere in the two detectors. The number of events in the Monte Carlo was normalized to the data using the measured luminosity. The distribution has two peaks. The one at around 110 photoelectrons is caused by particles going through the full lenght of the Cherenkov tube. The second peak around 40 photoelectrons is caused by particles that have only gone through the photomultiplier window and not the gas in the Aluminium tubes. These particles are typically produced by interactions in the tube walls or the beampipe.

The same plot as above shown with a logarithmic scale.

The average charge distribution of all the tubes in one of the two detectors at 7 TeV. The charge has been converted to the number of photo electrons produced in the photomultiplier. The data was recorded using the single side trigger that requires at least one hit in one of the two detectors. The number of photoelectrons produced in the Monte Carlo simulation has been increased with a factor 1.12 so that the two peaks from Cerenkov light from only the photomultiplier window and from window+gas agree. The number of events in the Monte Carlo was normalized to the data using the measured luminosity. The charge distribution is compared with Monte Carlo simulations with Pythia as the event generator and using the full Athena detector simulation framework.

The distribution of the number of hits in events triggered by the single side trigger that requires at least one hit anywhere in the two detectors. A "hit" is here defined as a photo multiplier signal larger than 15 photo electrons. The data is compared to both a Phojet and a Pythia Monte Carlo simulation.

The same plot as above shown with a logarithmic scale.

The distribution of the number of hits in events triggered by the coincidence trigger that requires at least one hit both detectors. A "hit" is here defined as a photo multiplier signal larger than 15 photo electrons. The data is compared to both a Phojet and a Pythia Monte Carlo simulation.

The same plot as above shown with a logarithmic scale.

The luminosity measured by LUCID at 7 TeV during a fill is shown together with background measurements obtained by measuring the “background luminosity” from non-colliding unpaired bunches. The background level in the single arm trigger is four orders of magnitude below the signal and more than 5 orders of magnitude below the signal when the coincidence trigger is used.

The instantaneous luminosity measured by LUCID at 7 TeV for 8 different colliding bunches in the machine. The plot shows that the time development of the different bunches is different. The bunch-to-bunch variations in the luminosity is up to 40% at the start of the fill. At a time of about 560 minutes there is a loss of luminosity that affects the bunches differently. Some looses only 4%, others a third of their luminosity.The data was taken during ATLAS run 155697.

The distribution of the integrated measured luminosity recorded by LUCID at 7 TeV for different LHC bunches (BCID) during ATLAS run 155697. The plot is for the single side trigger. In this fill there was 8 colliding bunches and four pairs of bunches that were made to collide at 11 m away from the normal position of the interaction point. There were also 2 non-colliding bunches in this fill. The bunches with displaced collisions creates a larger background than the beam background. For the single arm trigger they give a background level of about 2% but this is reduced by a factor of 100 when the coincidence trigger is used instead.

The same plot as above for the coincidence trigger.

ZDC figures

Plots approved from RUN1
The next 4 Figures (1 to 4) ilustrate the performance of the ZDC detectors during the 2010 Heavy Ion run. In particular about their correlation for the OR trigger selection of the sides A and C in order to see that two classes of events with single and mutual neutron emission can be observed (selected) and for the coincidence of the two sides plus a veto on MBTS 1 1 in order to show that in this case the amount of events with ZDC coincidences with large energy is reduced and that mutual EMD (ElectroMagnetic Dissociation) events with the emission of at least one neutron emission by both nuclei can be selected. Plots are shown for the low and high gain data. These performance plots represent data collected by the ZDC detectors during the 2010 HI run, with run number 170004.

Figure 1: Correlation plot between the ZDC A and the ZDC C detectors for events passing the L1 ZDC A or L1 ZDC C triggers, shown here is low gain data.



Figure 2: Correlation plot between the ZDC A and the ZDC C detectors for events passing the L1 ZDC A or L1 ZDC C triggers, shown here is high gain data

Figure 3: Correlation plot between the ZDC A and the ZDC C detectors for events passing the L1 ZDC AND or L1 ZDC A C coincidence triggers plus a veto on the L1 MBTS 1 1. This selection is made in order to observe events with mutual Coulomb dissociation which is dominated by 1 neutron emission by both nuclei (main spot), shown here is the low gain data

Figure 4: Correlation plot between the ZDC A and the ZDC C detectors for events passing the L1 ZDC AND or L1 ZDC A C coincidence triggers plus a veto on the L1 MBTS 1 1. This selection is made in order to observe events with mutual Coulomb dissociation which is dominated by 1 neutron emission by both nuclei (main spot), shown here is the high gain data

Energy distribution as measured by the ZDC-A. Black curve is total events triggered by the ATLAS minimum bias trigger. Red curve is events triggered by the Constant Fraction Discriminator (CFD). The inset is the lower energy part of this figure showing the threshold effect of the CFD. The threshold for full efficiency is approximately 400 GeV. The two figures below describe how the energy scale was set.

Energy distribution as measured by the ZDC-A for neutron candidates. Black curve is events triggered by the ATLAS minimum bias trigger. Red curve is events triggered by the Constant Fraction Discriminator trigger. A neutron is defined by the longitudinal shower development, i.e., more than 17 GeV was deposited in module 2 and more than 13 GeV was deposited in module 3. The inset is the lower energy part of the figure showing the threshold effect of the discriminator. The threshold for full efficiency is approximately 430 GeV. The energy scale is obtained for neutrons by minimizing the width of the neutron spectra by adjusting the relative gain of the three modules, and then scaling the end point of the final distribution to 3.5 TeV.

Energy distribution as measured by the ZDC-A for photon candidates. Black curve is events triggered by the ATLAS minimum bias trigger. Red curve is events triggered by the Constant Fraction Discriminator trigger. A photon event is defined by the longitudinal shower development, i.e., less than 17 GeV deposited in module 2 and less than 13 GeV deposited in module 3. Inset is the lower energy part of the figure showing threshold effect of the discriminator. The threshold for full efficiency is approximately 420 GeV. The energy scale for photons was obtained by adjusting the end point of the distribution to 3.5 TeV.

Pulse amplitude (Ai) vs. time slice for a typical pulse from the waveform digitizer. Each slice is one time bin of the wave form digitizer, and is 25 ns. The pedestal has been subtracted. The ratio A1/A2 is sensitive to time. The value of that ratio is used to determine the time of an event.

Time of arrival of an event in module 2 vs. that in module 1 in ZDC-A. This correlation on a single arm allows us to determine the time resolution of a single module. The energy deposited in the ZDCs is about 0.5 TeV.

Distribution of events in module 2 time minus that in module 1 in ZDC-A, divided by square root of 2. The standard deviation of this variable yields the standard deviation in time of a single module.

Distribution in time of events in ZDC-C minus that in ZDC-A, divided by the square root of 2. This two arm width of 0.26 ns is larger than the single width shown in the figure above, (0.21 nsec) which is consistent with a 4 cm rms in the distribution of p-p interactions along the beam.

Distribution of events in ZDC-C time minus that in ZDC-A. In this sample there is no requirement on the shower energy other than the trigger L1_ZDC_AND. The time is derived from the module1 waveform using a constant fraction algorithm, which gives somewhat better resolution than in the figure above.

Event rates vs. beam separation in a Van der Meer scan as seen by the ZDCs. Red points are ZDC-A, and black are ZDC-C. ZDC-A and ZDC-C rates are raw and not normalized to one another.

Van der Meer scan of 3.5 TeV comparing ZDC two arm coincidences (Red) with MBTS events(Black). The ZDC rates are normalized to the peak of the MBTS rates.

Similar to the figure above but with ZDC-A inclusive compared to MBTS on a log plot.

Van der Meer scan of 3.5 TeV showing ZDC-A rate and the coincidence rate of ZDC-A and ZDC-C.

Energy distribution of 2 photon candidates in the ZDC, selected using the longitudinal shower profile. The ZDC energy scale was established using the endpoint measured in 7 TeV collision data. Since the shower energy is concurrently measured in the “pixel” coordinate readout channels this allows energy calibration to be established for these channels also.

For 7 TeV collision data taken prior to LHCf removal the first ZDC module is the so-called “Hadronic x,y” which has identical energy resolution to all of the other ZDC modules. The coordinate resolution, however, is inferior to that of the high resolution EM, installed 7/20/10. Nevertheless, the reconstructed mass resolution is found to be 30% at m=130 MeV. As is found in ongoing simulation of pi0 reconstruction within the full ATLAS framework (see ZDC simulation TWIKI), the pi0 width is completely dominated by the energy resolution. Therefore, the current state of ATLAS ZDC photon energy resolution can be inferred from this plot.

The Z vertex distribution from inner tracker vs. the time of arrival of showers in ZDC-C relative to the ATLAS clock calculated from waveform reconstruction using Shannon interpolation of 40 MegaSample/sec ATLAS data (readout via the ATLAS L1calo Pre-processor modules). Typical time resolution is ~200 psec per photomultiplier (see ATL-COM-LUM-2010-022). The two areas outside the main high intensity area are due to satellite bunches. Note that this plot also provides a more precise calibration of the ZDC timing (here shown using the ZDC timing algorithm not corrected for the digitizer non-linearity discussed in ATL-COM-LUM-2010-027). With the non-linearity correction the upper and lower satellite separations are equalized.

In this Figure amplitude signals are shown for the A side of the ATLAS ZDCs for Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN=2.76 TeV. The three visible enhancements correspond to one, two, and three-neutron measurements, where each neutron has 1.38 TeV. No trigger requirements were applied. The similarity between the two sides suggests the detectors have well-balanced gains and thresholds. These events are relevant for studying heavy ion collisions and ultra-peripheral collisions, which proceed through the Lorentz-contracted Coulomb fields of the nuclei. These plots comes from the analysis of about 5 million events from RUN 169136

Same as above for side C

In this figure is shown for Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN=2.76 TeV the correlation between the total transverse energy deposited in ATLAS calorimeters and the amplitude signal from the ATLAS Zero-Degree Calorimeters. The correlation seen corresponds to the interplay between hadronic interations of the colliding nuclei and Coulomb interactions of the colliding nuclei in Ultra-Peripheral Collisions (UPC). For low ET, the events come primarily from the UPC through exchange of one or more photons, exciting one or both nuclei, which subsequently de-excite through neutron emission, the neutrons continuing in the forward direction. For these reactions, the number of neutrons impacting the ZDC can be large, e.g., up to several dozen neutrons; in this plot, up to ~10 neutrons are seen. In this case, little energy is deposited in the rest of ATLAS. Signals with large ET indicate hadronic interactions of the nuclei, which cause deposits of energy in the rest of ATLAS that can be very large (exceeding 12 TeV in this plot). Peripheral collisions involving hadronic interactions (in distinction to the Coulomb-only interactions) occur at smaller values of ET and these also deposit large numbers of neutrons in the ZDC. This is because most of the nucleons in the nucleus continue to move forward with nearly the same energy as before the collision, as quasi-spectators of the collision. More central hadronic collisions tend to have many fewer spectators, leaving little in the way of forward-going nuclear fragments, thus the energy deposition in the ZDC decreases as ET increases.

Energy distribution measured by the ZDC-C for photon candidates in pp collisions at 7 TeV, for run 177531, 177540, 177593 and 177682. Photon candidates are defined using the longitudinal shower development, by selecting events with energy deposition only in the first module. The energy scale is set using the π0 mass peak. The black curve represents all the photon candidates in the MinBias stream, the red curve is for events triggered by L1_ZDC_C.

Invariant mass of π0 candidates for pp collisions at 7 TeV, run n 177531, 177540, 177593 and 177682, reconstructed using the ZDC-C. The invariant mass resolution is found to be around 18%. The two photons are reconstructed as separate energy depositions on the first ZDC module (EM module). The distribution is fitted using the sum of a gaussian distribution for the main π0 peak and a Polinomial of third degree distribution for the background events, whose contribution is shown by the black curve.

Energy distribution of π0 candidates reconstructed in the ZDC-C for pp collisions at 7 TeV, run n 177531, 177540, 177593 and 177682. Photon candidates are defined using the longitudinal shower development, by selecting events with energy deposition only in the first module.

Photos and drawings

Photos and drawings of the forward detectors can be found in the web page of the luminosity taskforce.

Test beam and Monte Carlo Plots

Luminosity plots

Links

Responsible


Responsible: Marco Bruschi

Last reviewed by: The plots have been reviewed by the ATLAS collaboration

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PNGpng LUCID_Absolute.png r1 manage 27.6 K 2018-05-18 - 16:11 AntonelloSbrizzi HV applied to the PMTs as a function of cumulative luminosity delivered to the LHC from 2015 to 2017.
PNGpng LUCID_Bi107Signal.png r1 manage 8.4 K 2018-05-18 - 13:10 AntonelloSbrizzi Plot of a single pulse in a LUCID PMT from the Bi-207 source in 2017
JPEGjpg LUCID_PinDiodeA.jpg r1 manage 1821.6 K 2018-06-01 - 16:17 AntonelloSbrizzi LED calibration signal as monitored by the PIN-diode as a function of time in 2016.
PNGpng LUCID_Relative.png r1 manage 30.3 K 2018-05-18 - 16:15 AntonelloSbrizzi HV applied to the PMTs as a function of integrated luminosity delivered from 2015-2017 for each year separately.
PNGpng LUCID_TransitTime.png r1 manage 76.6 K 2018-05-18 - 16:23 AntonelloSbrizzi Transit time as a function of HV.
PNGpng LUCID_meas.png r1 manage 22.5 K 2018-05-18 - 16:08 AntonelloSbrizzi Measurement of the pulseheight distribution of the LUCROD amplified signals from the Bi-source.
JPEGjpg LUCID_plotctoa2.jpg r1 manage 362.7 K 2018-05-18 - 16:25 AntonelloSbrizzi Charge-amplitude ratio as a function of day in 2016.
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PDFpdf LUCID_totalmean_bi_2016.pdf r1 manage 22.8 K 2018-05-18 - 16:18 AntonelloSbrizzi Variation in percent of the measured mean charge relative a reference run for one of the Bi-calibrated photomultipliers.
PDFpdf NewLHCC_LUCIDOR_Fibers_PerBCID.pdf r1 manage 29.2 K 2015-05-28 - 21:26 MarcoBruschi  
PNGpng Per_BCID_poster.PNG r1 manage 30.5 K 2015-05-21 - 17:37 MarcoBruschi Lucid Splash Events - RUN 2
JPEGjpg Per_BCID_poster_red.jpg r1 manage 26.4 K 2015-05-21 - 17:49 MarcoBruschi  
PNGpng Per_BCID_poster_zoomed.PNG r1 manage 28.8 K 2015-05-21 - 17:37 MarcoBruschi Lucid Splash Events - RUN 2
JPEGjpg Per_BCID_poster_zoomed_red.jpg r1 manage 25.8 K 2015-05-21 - 17:49 MarcoBruschi  
PNGpng Per_LB_poster.PNG r1 manage 31.3 K 2015-05-21 - 17:37 MarcoBruschi Lucid Splash Events - RUN 2
JPEGjpg Per_LB_poster_red.jpg r1 manage 25.3 K 2015-05-21 - 17:49 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg Picture1.jpg r1 manage 12.0 K 2011-11-08 - 14:04 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf Picture1.pdf r1 manage 150.3 K 2011-11-08 - 14:06 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg Picture2.jpg r1 manage 11.5 K 2011-11-08 - 14:04 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf Picture2.pdf r1 manage 127.4 K 2011-11-08 - 14:06 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg Picture3.jpg r1 manage 12.4 K 2011-11-08 - 14:05 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf Picture3.pdf r1 manage 204.7 K 2011-11-08 - 14:06 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg Picture4.jpg r1 manage 8.1 K 2011-11-08 - 14:05 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf Picture4.pdf r1 manage 122.8 K 2011-11-08 - 14:07 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg Picture5.jpg r1 manage 10.3 K 2011-11-08 - 14:05 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf Picture5.pdf r1 manage 154.4 K 2011-11-08 - 14:07 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf Signal.pdf r1 manage 9.5 K 2010-06-24 - 06:46 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg alfa_fig1_230212.jpg r2 r1 manage 10.6 K 2012-02-23 - 14:03 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf alfa_fig1_230212.pdf r1 manage 235.7 K 2012-02-23 - 14:07 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg alfa_fig2_230212.jpg r1 manage 9.9 K 2012-02-23 - 14:02 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf alfa_fig2_230212.pdf r1 manage 181.6 K 2012-02-23 - 14:07 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg alfa_fig3_230212.jpg r1 manage 8.5 K 2012-02-23 - 14:02 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf alfa_fig3_230212.pdf r1 manage 145.8 K 2012-02-23 - 14:06 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg alfa_fig4_230212.jpg r1 manage 8.0 K 2012-02-23 - 14:02 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf alfa_fig4_230212.pdf r1 manage 139.0 K 2012-02-23 - 14:05 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg alfa_fig5_230212.jpg r1 manage 6.3 K 2012-02-23 - 14:01 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf alfa_fig5_230212.pdf r1 manage 89.6 K 2012-02-23 - 14:05 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg alfa_fig6_230212.jpg r1 manage 6.4 K 2012-02-23 - 14:01 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf alfa_fig6_230212.pdf r1 manage 89.0 K 2012-02-23 - 14:04 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg alfa_fig7_230212.jpg r1 manage 6.4 K 2012-02-23 - 14:00 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf alfa_fig7_230212.pdf r1 manage 91.4 K 2012-02-23 - 14:04 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg alfa_fig8_230212.jpg r1 manage 6.3 K 2012-02-23 - 13:59 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf alfa_fig8_230212.pdf r1 manage 91.2 K 2012-02-23 - 14:04 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg alfa_fig9_230212.jpg r1 manage 7.5 K 2012-02-23 - 13:59 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf alfa_fig9_230212.pdf r1 manage 95.0 K 2012-02-23 - 14:03 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg figure_approved.jpg r1 manage 8.9 K 2015-06-23 - 18:42 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf figure_approved.jpg.pdf r1 manage 112.8 K 2015-06-23 - 18:40 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf figure_approved.pdf r1 manage 112.8 K 2015-06-23 - 18:42 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg halorate_x.jpg r1 manage 22.9 K 2012-11-30 - 10:24 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf halorate_x.pdf r1 manage 29.3 K 2012-11-30 - 10:11 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg halorate_y.jpg r1 manage 22.4 K 2012-11-30 - 10:24 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf halorate_y.pdf r1 manage 26.1 K 2012-11-30 - 10:11 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf hit_log.pdf r1 manage 18.5 K 2010-06-24 - 06:42 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg l_zdc1.jpg r1 manage 38.8 K 2012-08-22 - 18:52 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf l_zdc1.pdf r1 manage 387.6 K 2012-08-22 - 18:52 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg l_zdc2.jpg r1 manage 41.3 K 2012-08-22 - 18:52 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf l_zdc2.pdf r1 manage 376.7 K 2012-08-22 - 18:52 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg l_zdc3.jpg r1 manage 41.2 K 2012-08-22 - 18:52 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf l_zdc3.pdf r1 manage 367.1 K 2012-08-22 - 18:52 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg l_zdc4.jpg r1 manage 43.1 K 2012-08-22 - 18:52 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf l_zdc4.pdf r1 manage 359.6 K 2012-08-22 - 18:52 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg lucid_poster.jpg r1 manage 15.1 K 2013-03-15 - 13:06 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf lucid_poster.pdf r1 manage 126.3 K 2013-03-15 - 13:06 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg nominal_pilot_x.jpg r1 manage 28.3 K 2012-11-30 - 10:24 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf nominal_pilot_x.pdf r1 manage 28.6 K 2012-11-30 - 10:11 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg nominal_pilot_y.jpg r1 manage 25.0 K 2012-11-30 - 10:24 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf nominal_pilot_y.pdf r1 manage 26.3 K 2012-11-30 - 10:11 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg pilotrate_x.jpg r1 manage 24.5 K 2012-11-30 - 10:24 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf pilotrate_x.pdf r1 manage 29.5 K 2012-11-30 - 10:11 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg pilotrate_y.jpg r1 manage 24.2 K 2012-11-30 - 10:24 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf pilotrate_y.pdf r1 manage 26.1 K 2012-11-30 - 10:11 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf pulseh.pdf r1 manage 140.6 K 2015-05-28 - 21:26 MarcoBruschi  
PNGpng sc1.png r1 manage 24.2 K 2014-05-13 - 15:51 MateuszDyndal  
PDFpdf st0.pdf r1 manage 28.1 K 2014-05-13 - 15:51 MateuszDyndal  
JPEGjpg zdc-sm-1.jpg r1 manage 14.1 K 2012-06-09 - 14:49 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf zdc-sm-1.pdf r1 manage 30.8 K 2012-06-09 - 14:49 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg zdc-sm-2.jpg r1 manage 16.0 K 2012-06-09 - 14:49 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf zdc-sm-2.pdf r1 manage 29.1 K 2012-06-09 - 14:49 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg zdc-sm-3.jpg r1 manage 15.6 K 2012-06-09 - 14:49 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf zdc-sm-3.pdf r1 manage 30.2 K 2012-06-09 - 14:49 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg zdc10.jpg r1 manage 9.3 K 2010-07-12 - 16:10 VincentHedberg  
PDFpdf zdc10.pdf r1 manage 181.1 K 2010-07-12 - 16:11 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg zdc11.jpg r1 manage 8.9 K 2010-07-12 - 16:11 VincentHedberg  
PDFpdf zdc11.pdf r1 manage 169.4 K 2010-07-12 - 16:11 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg zdc12.jpg r1 manage 185.7 K 2010-07-12 - 16:11 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg zdc12s.jpg r1 manage 9.5 K 2010-07-12 - 16:11 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg zdc13.jpg r1 manage 9.3 K 2010-07-12 - 16:12 VincentHedberg  
PDFpdf zdc13.pdf r1 manage 173.3 K 2010-07-12 - 16:12 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg zdc2.jpg r1 manage 10.8 K 2010-07-12 - 11:23 VincentHedberg  
PDFpdf zdc2.pdf r1 manage 1013.2 K 2010-07-12 - 11:24 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg zdc3.jpg r1 manage 11.2 K 2010-07-12 - 16:08 VincentHedberg  
PDFpdf zdc3.pdf r1 manage 1047.1 K 2010-07-12 - 16:08 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg zdc4.jpg r1 manage 11.3 K 2010-07-12 - 16:08 VincentHedberg  
PDFpdf zdc4.pdf r1 manage 1052.6 K 2010-07-12 - 16:08 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg zdc5.jpg r1 manage 13.1 K 2010-07-12 - 16:08 VincentHedberg  
PDFpdf zdc5.pdf r1 manage 285.7 K 2010-07-12 - 16:09 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg zdc6.jpg r1 manage 14.1 K 2010-07-12 - 16:09 VincentHedberg  
PDFpdf zdc6.pdf r1 manage 364.7 K 2010-07-12 - 16:09 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg zdc7.jpg r1 manage 12.1 K 2010-07-12 - 16:09 VincentHedberg  
PDFpdf zdc7.pdf r1 manage 287.7 K 2010-07-12 - 16:09 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg zdc8.jpg r1 manage 12.9 K 2010-07-12 - 16:10 VincentHedberg  
PDFpdf zdc8.pdf r1 manage 309.4 K 2010-07-12 - 16:10 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg zdc9.jpg r1 manage 10.6 K 2010-07-12 - 16:10 VincentHedberg  
PDFpdf zdc9.pdf r1 manage 1042.5 K 2010-07-12 - 16:10 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg zdc_correlations.jpg r1 manage 13.5 K 2011-07-22 - 20:42 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf zdc_correlations.pdf r1 manage 262.9 K 2011-07-22 - 20:34 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg zdc_neutrons_a.jpg r1 manage 7.7 K 2011-07-22 - 20:37 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf zdc_neutrons_a.pdf r1 manage 30.3 K 2011-07-22 - 20:33 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg zdc_neutrons_c.jpg r1 manage 7.8 K 2011-07-22 - 20:41 MarcoBruschi  
PDFpdf zdc_neutrons_c.pdf r1 manage 29.8 K 2011-07-22 - 20:33 MarcoBruschi  
JPEGjpg zdc_photon_energy.jpg r1 manage 13.8 K 2010-09-13 - 17:51 VincentHedberg  
PDFpdf zdc_photon_energy.pdf r1 manage 110.5 K 2010-09-13 - 17:51 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg zdc_pi0.jpg r1 manage 15.9 K 2010-09-13 - 17:52 VincentHedberg  
PDFpdf zdc_pi0.pdf r1 manage 79.6 K 2010-09-13 - 17:52 VincentHedberg  
JPEGjpg zdc_vx_time.jpg r1 manage 15.1 K 2010-09-13 - 17:52 VincentHedberg  
PDFpdf zdc_vx_time.pdf r1 manage 68.1 K 2010-09-13 - 17:52 VincentHedberg  
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Topic revision: r50 - 2018-06-27 - MarcoBruschi
 
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