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Public TRT Plots for Collision Data

Introduction

This page shows approved plots that demonstrate ATLAS TRT detector performance in collision data and can be shown by speakers at conferences and similar events.
If you are interested in having additional plots approved or in case of questions and/or suggestions, please contact the responsible project leader. See also ATLAS approval plots procedure.

Papers

Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker in Run 1 of the LHC: tracker properties:
Journal of Instrumentation, Volume 12, P05002 (2 May 2017)
Public Plots IDET-2015-01 (17 February 2017)

Public notes and plots

TRT performance results from 13 TeV collision data (2015/2016):
Public plots TRT-2016-001 (03 August 2016)

Detailed comparison of the TRT digitization model with experimental data of 7 and 8 TeV runs:
ATL-INDET-PUB-2014-001 (updated 19.05.2014) "Basic ATLAS TRT performance studies of Run 1" (3 March 2014).

TRT Occupancy at 25 ns BX spacing and validity gate effects:
ATL-COM-PHYS-2013-1348 "Inner Detector performance in 25 ns and 50 ns runs" (3 December 2013).

TRT performance at high occupancy in heavy ion collisions:
ATL-COM-PHYS-2012-1544 "TRT performance in HI collisions" (14 February 2013).

Additional plots of the TRT performance at high pileup:
ATL-COM-PHYS-2012-468 "TRT occupancy and tracking performance with large pileup" (09 May 2012).

Track and vertex reconstruction performance at high pileup:
ATLAS-CONF-2012-042 "Performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector Track and Vertex Reconstruction in the High Pile-Up LHC Environment" (20 March 2012).

TRT PID performance based on 7 TeV collision data:
ATLAS-CONF-2011-128 "Particle Identification Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker" (18 August 2011).

Some TRT results related to alignment:
ATLAS-CONF-2011-012 "Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System with 2010 LHC proton-proton collisions at sqrt{s} = 7 TeV" (8 March 2011).

TRT R-T calibration procedure and results based on 7 TeV collision data:
ATLAS-CONF-2011-006 "Calibration of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker" (21 February 2011).

Notes of explanation

Any plots shown in this section are not necessarily "public"; they are intended to help explanations only.

Coverage:

The following two sets of pseudorapidity (η) ranges are commonly used in studies:

  • |η|<0.625 (tracks entirely in the TRT barrel),
  • 0.625<|η|<1.070 (tracks spanning the service region between the barrel and end-cap),
  • 1.070<|η|<1.304 (tracks in the type A end-cap wheels),
  • 1.304<|η|<1.752 (tracks spanning the type A and B end-cap wheels),
  • 1.752<|η|<2.0 (tracks entirely in the type B wheel region).

Possibly we need to redefine these regions in such a way that is meaningful for the studies. The above definitions make sense when we consider PID where the eta regions contain similar rejection power:

See also:

TRT performance results from 13 TeV collision data (2015/2016) (03 August 2016)

The most recent available plots can be seen here Public plots TRT-2016-001 (03 August 2016)

Results from 900 GeV collision data [Argon straws, Barrel only] (6 May 2015)

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Overview
Plots made with data from run 264034 (6 May 2015)
– physics_MinBias stream
– reconstruction tag f578 (collisions set-up with tracking commissioning settings)
– 900 GeV collisions, TRT filled with Argon in all straws 70%Ar, 27%CO2 and 3%O2.
Track selection:
– pT > 0.5 GeV
– at least one silicon hit
– at least 10 TRT hits
Statistics: in total 230M hits on track passing this selection.
Time distribution on track(Barrel)
For any triggered event, the TRT reads out data over three bunch crossing periods with each crossing period divided in eight time-bins. For each TRT straw, the information about whether the signal exceeds the threshold or not is thus recorded in bins of 3.12 ns. The first 0 to 1 transition marks the leading edge (LE) of the signal (hit). The drift time is defined as the leading-edge time, corrected for an offset described by a time calibration constant and corresponds to the time it takes for the closest primary electron cluster to drift to the wire.
driftTime_run264034_barrel_4.png
png file / pdf file
Number of LL hits on track in time window
Number of hits on track where the signal exceeds the low level(LL) threshold within a time window of [14.06,42.19] ns. The time window requirement preferentially rejects hits from out of time bunch crossings. The average number of TRT hits on tracks extracted is 31.
LLhitsTrack_run264034_barrel_4.png
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Position residuals
The TRT unbiased hit residual distribution for the barrel as obtained from 900 GeV collision data, with all TRT straws filled with Argon gas. The residual is defined by the difference between the drift radius extracted from the drift time and the track radial position, measured for precision hits. The width as stated in the inlay was determined from an iterative fit resulting in a fit in the region of 1.5 sigma around the central value. The uncertainty of the width is less than 0.1 µm in all cases. The mean of the fit is smaller in absolute value than 1 µm and is not shown. Tracks for the position determination were selected to have pT > 0.5 GeV, at least one silicon hit and at least 10 TRT hits. For these low-momentum tracks, the width of the residual distribution is larger than the intrinsic accuracy per hit expected from the drift-time measurement because of the contribution from multiple scattering to the track parameter errors. More data are required to improve the overall alignment of the inner detector and of the TRT.
For a comparison with Xenon based mixture in 2011 data, see #TRTPublicResults#Results_from_7_TeV_collision_dat
residualD_run264034_barrel_4.png
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Time residuals
Time residual distributions for TRT barrel as obtained from 900 GeV collision data with all TRT straws filled with Argon gas. The time residual is defined as the difference between the leading-edge time, corrected for an offset described by a T0 calibration constant, and the expected drift-time estimated from the track position (for details see ATLAS-CONF-2011-006). The resolution was determined in an iterative fit procedure with a single gaussian in the range of +/- 1.5 sigma around the mean. Tracks for the position determination were selected to have pT > 0.5 GeV, at least one silicon hit and at least 10 TRT hits.
For a comparison with Xenon based mixture in 2011 data, see #TRTPublicResults#Results_from_7_TeV_collision_dat
residualT_run264034_barrel_4.png
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TRT R(T) relation
This plot shows the TRT R-T dependency for the TRT barrel as obtained from 900 GeV collision data with all TRT straws filled with Argon gas. This relation is used to infer track to wire distance, i.e., drift radius, based on measured drift time. To determine the R-T relation, the raw time measurement is first corrected with a T0 calibration constant. This way, different signal delays for different parts of the detector are taken into account. In the next step, the track to wire distance distribution is fit in bins of measured drift time. The tracks are required to have pT > 0.5 GeV, at least one silicon hit and at least 10 TRT hits.
For a comparison with Xenon based mixture in 2011 data, see #TRTPublicResults#Results_from_7_TeV_collision_dat
RTrelation_run264034_barrel_4.png
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Results from 8 TeV collision data (2012)

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Performance of the TRT PID capabilities with pileup
The fraction of high threshold TRT hits on track for electron candidates is given as a function of expected pileup in different eta sections of the TRT. Pileup is quantified either by the number of primary vertices reconstructed by the inner detector or the average number of interactions per bunch crossing, which is proportional to LHC instantaneous luminosity. The absolute HT fraction varies across eta regions based on the amount of TRT radiator material traversed.
data selection:
  • Simulation: mc12_8TeV.147806.PowhegPythia8_AU2CT10
  • Data GRL:data12_8TeV.periodAllYear_DetStatus-v40-pro12-01_CoolRunQuery-00-04-08_Eg_standard.xml
Electrons:
  • Trigger: EF_2e12Tvh_loose1, also require a selected offline electron match
  • Require $\eta$<2.0, remove crack (1.37<$\eta$< 1.52), E_T>25 GeV
  • Tag & probe electrons of opposite sign and invariant mass within 15 GeV of Z peak
  • Probe: MediumPP(without TRCut), nTRTHits>20, author, OQ, eta, Et, isolation
  • Tag: HT ratio >.12 (and probe criteria)
is defined as the average interactions per bunch crossing averaged over a given lumi block and BCID

The plots were made separately for 5 different regions in eta corresponding to Barrel, Barrel/EndcapA, Endcap A, Endcap A/B and Endcap B

|$\eta$|<0.625
HTFRACTIONEta0vNPVprof.png HTFRACTIONEta0vAVERAGEINTPERXINGprof.png
eps file (NVtx) eps file (mu)

0.625<|$\eta$|<1.07
HTFRACTIONEta1vNPVprof.png HTFRACTIONEta1vAVERAGEINTPERXINGprof.png
eps file (NVtx) eps file (mu)

1.07<|$\eta$|<1.304
HTFRACTIONEta2vNPVprof.png HTFRACTIONEta2vAVERAGEINTPERXINGprof.png
eps file (NVtx) eps file (mu)

1.304<|$\eta$|<1.752
HTFRACTIONEta3vNPVprof.png HTFRACTIONEta3vAVERAGEINTPERXINGprof.png
eps file (NVtx) eps file (mu)

1.752<|$\eta$|<2.0
HTFRACTIONEta4vNPVprof.png HTFRACTIONEta4vAVERAGEINTPERXINGprof.png
eps file (NVtx) eps file (mu)

Results from 7 TeV collision data (2010/2011)

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Pion rejection vs eta
Pion misidentification probability for HT fraction criteria that give 90% electron efficiency in bins of eta. This plot is an update of a public plot where only the result for data was shown. The simulated sample was analyzed in the same way as the data sample. The detector performance exceeds the simulation-based expectations, in particular in the end-cap region (|eta| > 0.8). For more information on the analysis, selection criteria, data - simulation comparisons and other related results see ATLAS-CONF-2011-128.

PionRejVsEtaWithMC.png
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Time residuals
Time residual distributions for TRT barrel and end-caps. The time residual is defined as the difference between the leading-edge time, corrected for an offset described by a T0 calibration constant, and the expected drift-time estimated from the track position (for details see ATLAS-CONF-2011-006). The resolution was determined in an iterative fit procedure with a single gaussian in the range of +/- 1.5 sigma around the mean. The mean position of the gaussian reflects different T0 positions in data and MC. The observed widths of the distribution are 3.0 (3.1) ns in data and 3.1 (2.9) ns in MC in the barrel (end-cap) region. Tracks for the position determination were selected to have pT > 2 GeV, |do| < 10 mm, |zo| < 300 mm and at least 15 TRT hits. The comparison with simulation is based on a dijet PYTHIA MC.



time_resolution_Barrel_run182787.png
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time_resolution_Endcap_run182787.png
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Hit Residuals
The hit residual distribution for barrel long straws, end-caps and barrel short straws. The short straws, for which the central part of the straw is not read out, have significantly lower occupancy. The residual is defined by the difference between the drift radius extracted from the drift time and the track radial position, measured for precision hits. The full histogram shows the MC simulation and the points the data. The width as stated in the inlay was determined from an iterative fit resulting in a fit in the region of 1.5 sigma around the central value. The uncertainty of the width is less than 0.1 μm in all cases. Tracks for the position determination were selected to have pT > 2 GeV, |do| < 10 mm, |zo| < 300 mm and at least 15 TRT hits. For these low-momentum tracks, the width of the residual distribution is larger than the intrinsic accuracy per hit expected from the drift-time measurement because of the contribution from multiple scattering to the track parameter errors. The comparison with simulation is based on a dijet PYTHIA MC.



h_residual_Barrel_run182787.png
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h_residual_Endcap_run182787.png
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h_residual_Shortstraws_run182787.png
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Hit Occupancy
Low-level hit occupancy and high-level hit occupancy for different numbers of reconstructed primary vertices. The plots show the average for the three straw layers with highest and lowest occupancy in the barrel and end-cap regions of the detector. This should represent the possible range of occupancy. The points show the distribution where the line is the Monte Carlo simulation. The observed offset differences in the barrel region can be associated to different noise levels and different physics at hard scatter, whereas differences in slope represent differences between data and simulation in the Minbias process and vertex finding efficiency.

profile_all_new_vertex_run182787.png
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profile_allHT_new_vertex_run182787.png
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Position Residuals
Position residual width as a function of track pt for data and Monte Carlo for barrel (top) and endcap (bottom). Residuals rise at lower pt due to increased scattering of the track.

barrel_residuals.png
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barrel_residuals.png
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Position Residuals vs primary vertices
Position residual width as a function of the number of reconstructed primary vertices found in the event. A track pt cut of 10 GeV is required so that the pt spectrum of tracks does not significantly change with added vertices.

residuals_vertex.png
eps file
Position Residual Maps
Position residual width as a function of R and Z in data for barrel (top) and endcap A (bottom). The widening of residuals at large Z and large radius is reproduced by the simulation.

h_pResidualvsRadiusZ_Barrel_sigma.TRTPerformanceNote.png
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h_pResidualvsRadiusZ_EndcapA_sigma.TRTPerformanceNote.png
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Tube Hit Fraction
Fraction of TRT hits on track that are tube hits as a function of track pt, shown for events with different numbers of reconstructed primary vertices.

tubes_vs_p_vxp.png
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Occupancy
Average occupancy and high threshold occupancy in data in the barrel and endcaps as a function of barrel straw layer and endcap wheel. Occupancies are shown for different numbers of reconstructed primary vertices. The first nine straw layers in the barrel are short straws, which have lower occupancy. The points with lowest occupancy correspond to events with zero reconstructed primary vertices. The highest points correspond to 11 reconstructed primary vertices.

barrel.png
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barrelHT.png
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endcap.png
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endcapHT.png
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Delta Occupancy
Change in average (high threshold) occupancy with an added additional reconstructed primary vertex in the barrel and endcaps as a function of barrel straw layer and endcap wheel. The additional occupancy with every added reconstructed vertex is a measure of the in-time background added by every minbias interaction. The first nine straw layers in the barrel are short straws, which have lower occupancy.

barrel_delta.png
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barrelHT_delta.png
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endcap_delta.png
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endcapHT_delta.png
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Predicted Occupancy
Predicted in-time (high threshold) occupancy as a function of barrel straw layer and endcap wheel for different values of pileup. The occupancies are calculated by using the delta occupancy plots to estimate the probability of a hit from an interaction. The first nine straw layers in the barrel are short straws, which have lower occupancy.

barrel_prediction.png
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barrel_prediction_HT.png
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endcap_prediction.png
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endcap_prediction_HT.png
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ToT-based dE/dX estimator
The following plots show an estimator for specific energy loss based on the Time over Threshold (ToT) measured by the TRT. The estimator demonstrates the capability to use ToT as a variable for particle identification for heavily ionizing particles.

The TRT measures the time when the signal exceeds low threshold in bins of 3.12 ns. The estimator is formed using the ToT measurement of all TRT hits on track. First, the average ToT for minimum ionizing particles (minimum bias tracks between total momenta of 2 GeV and 10 GeV) is found as a function of the track position in the straw (ToTmip), and then the average sum of the difference between the two, Σ(ToT -ToTmip)/Nhits, is used as the estimator. The estimator is offset to be equal to 1 for minimum ionizing particles. Finally, corrections for variations with pseudo-rapidity are made for hits on tracks in the barrel and end-cap. When plotted vs. the total momentum the dE/dx estimator shows the typical Bethe-Bloch rise for kaons, protons and deuterons.

A sample of approximately 17 million tracks collected during one run (155160) of 7 TeV collisions is used. The tracks are required to have at least one pixel, at least six SCT, and at least 15 TRT hits. The range of 0 <|eta|< 2 that is used includes both barrel and end-cap regions of the detector.

Track impact parameters are used to select 15.7M tracks from the primary vertex:|d0| < 1 mm and |z0 sin(θ)| < 1 mm. Reversing both of these cuts gives 1.7M tracks not associated with the primary vertex and dominated by secondaries from hadronic interactions and conversions in the beam pipe and detectors. There are far more protons and deuterons than their corresponding antiparticles observed in this sample.
BarrelForApproval2.png
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EndcapForApproval2.png
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TRT R-T relation

These plots show the TRT R­T dependency for the TRT barrel and end-caps. This relation is used to infer track to wire distance, i.e., drift radius, based on measured drift time.

To determine the R-T relation, the raw time measurement is first corrected with a T0 calibration constant. This way, different signal delays for different parts of the detector are taken into account. In the next step, the track to wire distance distribution is fit in bins of measured drift time. The peak position obtained with this fit is shown in blue points in the figures. The dependency of the peak position on measured drift time is described by a third order polynomial, shown in the black line. The curve is slightly different in the end-caps due to the different orientation of the straws and small variations in the magnetic field. The tracks are required to have at least 6 hits in SCT and at least 20 hits in the TRT.

RTbarrel-20100527.png
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RTendcap-20100527.png
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Transition radiation onset

The plots show the probability of a TRT high-threshold (HT) hit as a function of the Lorentz factor, γ = E/m, for the TRT barrel and end-cap regions, as measured in 7 TeV collision events, runs 152994 - 153565.

At high values of γ (above γ=1000), a pure sample of electrons is obtained from photon conversions. For low values of gamma, all selected tracks in the event are used and are assumed to have the mass of the charged pion. As expected from the production of transition radiation (TR), the probability of a HT hit increases for particles with a gamma-factor above 1000, which enables the TRT to separate electrons from pions over a momentum range between 1 GeV and 150 GeV.

The conversion candidates are required to be pairs of oppositely charged tracks, both of which originate from the same vertex, where this vertex is more than 40 mm away from the beam axis. Both tracks are required to have at least four silicon hits and 20 TRT hits. When one track is identified as an electron (fraction of HT hits > 0.12), the other track is considered to be an electron candidate. The pion candidates are required to have at least one b-layer hit and 20 TRT hits. To minimize the contamination of electrons, these tracks are required not to overlap with any conversion candidates.

The number of conversions increase and have a higher momentum spectrum in the end-caps due to the increased amount of material and boost in the forward directions. The results indicate that the onset of TR from the lower plateau (corresponding to the probability of producing high-energy delta-rays) and the upper plateau (corresponding to the saturation of the transition radiation production in the geometry chosen for the TRT radiators foils and straw tubes) in the end-cap is steeper than for the barrel. This is expected from test-beam measurements and from the different radiator materials used for the barrel (irregularly spaced fibres) and end-caps (regularly spaced foils).

The results agree with those obtained from minimum bias Monte Carlo simulation for almost all values of gamma and provide the TRT detector with an excellent starting point to study and optimize its particle identification properties. The simulation of the transition radiation has so far been tuned on data collected with barrel modules only in 2004 on a test beam setup and can now be improved based on new results from collision data. The simulated sample is observed to have slightly higher HT probability for hadrons and lower HT probability for electron candidates in the end-caps, where larger number of conversion candidates allows the comparison.

BarrelForApproval2.png
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EndcapForApproval2.png
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TRT hit efficiency

The following plots show the TRT hit reconstruction efficiency as a function of distance of closest approach of the track to the straw centre. The hit reconstruction efficiency is defined as the number of straws with a hit on track divided by the number of straws crossed by the track. Only straws between the first and the last straws with a reconstructed hit on the track are considered in the efficiency calculation, excluding the first and the last. The 2% of known non-functioning straws are excluded from this study. The tracks are required to have at least one pixel hit, six SCT and 15 TRT hits, as well as pT > 1 GeV, |d0| < 10 mm and |z0| < 300 mm. The efficiency for data (MC) is found to be 94% (95%) in the plateau region which is defined by the solid lines. The threshold as simulated in the Monte Carlo is tuned to the data collected during the 900 GeV center of mass collision data.

g_eff_locR_trt_b_fit.png
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g_eff_locR_trt_ec_fit.png
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ToT for PID

The following plot shows Time over Threshold (ToT) distributions for pion and electron candidates, as obtained from 7 TeV collision data. It demonstrates the capability to use time over threshold as an additional separating variable for particle identification.

The TRT measures the time when the signal exceeds threshold and the time when it falls below threshold in 3.125 ns bins. The time over threshold shown in this plot is the difference between the two, corrected for systematic variations along the z coordinate and divided by the transverse particle trajectory length in the straws.
Pion candidates are required to have: # SCT hits >3, # TRT hits >20, PID0 Si hits on each track, PID>0.9 for each track. High threshold hits are not used. No momentum cut is applied; momentum distributions for pion and electron candidates are different (<p>pions = 1.0 GeV, <p>electrons = 1.4 GeV).
From minimum bias Monte Carlo simulation, using pion selection: 80.5% of selected particles are pions, 11.3% are kaons, 6.9% are protons and 1.3% are other particles. Using electron selection, 99.6% of selected particles are electrons.

SumToT_over_sumD_Barrel.png
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Test Beam-Simulation plots

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Onset curve
High threshold probabilities for different particles in test-beam data as a function of Lorentz gamma factor. Show on the bottom is the formula used for the fit

2.png
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1.png
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Tuning the pion plateau
Comparison of barrel high threshold probability between test- beam data and simulation. On the top (bottom) the simulation is the pre-tuned transition radiation model with a high threshold setting of 6(6.25) keV and a transition radiation efficiency of 100%. A slight offset in the pion plateau is visible at 6 KeV, but good agreement is observed at 6.25 KeV.

3.png
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4.png
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Tuning the electron plateau
Comparison of barrel high threshold probability between test-beam data and simulation. On the left (right), the simulation is the tuned TR model with a high threshold setting of 6.25keV and a TR efficiency of 100 (95)%. The pion plateau and the onset are well modeled by the simulation in both instances, but the electron plateau is only well modeled after tuning the TR efficiency.

7.png
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8.png
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dE/dX simulation
Simulated dE/dx curve after tuning the low-energy tail to data. Obtained by switching off transition radiation in the Monte Carlo simulation.

5.png
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Fudge Function
Fudge function that scales the number of photons in Monte Carlo simulation to reproduce the TR onset curve of data. The maximal allowed value of the fudge function is 2.

6.png
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Results from 900 GeV collision data (December 2009)

border=1 cellpadding=10 cellspacing=10> Event timing as measured in the TRT for a few selected events from run 140541 (the first run with collisions).

TRT read-out timing was adjusted for collisions, therefore we can use raw hit time measurement to check timing of collision candidates and single beam events. TRT measures Leading Edge time (LE: 0 → 1 transition, used in tracking) and Trailing Edge time (TE: 1 → 0 transition, end of the signal). Noise hits have small TE − LE. In this study, we use TE because it does not depend much on track to wire distance. We use all hits with TE-LE > 10 ns (suppressing noise hits) and therefore do not even require tracking. We plot hit position to check that most of the hits are indeed hits from tracks. We even use no T0 calibration (since hardware T0 settings were adjusted with good enough precision).

The top plot shows the result for a beam 1 gas interaction event. Beam 1 is coming from side A (at positive z) to side C. Therefore, on side A, hits appear earlier than they would for collision events. The difference in measured timing (compared to tracks coming from the interaction point) is 2 * z / c = ( (z/mm) / 150 ) ns, as indicated with dashed blue line in figures. On side C, on the other hand, single beam event (either beam gas or beam halo) has similar timing as collision event.

The middle plot shows the same for the first ATLAS collision candidate, event 171897. The timing measured in TRT is consistent with collision event.

The bottom plot shows the same for a di-jet candidate event. This event has less tracks on side A, hence larger errors. Nevertheless, the timing is shown to be consistent with collision event.

TRTtimeInfo_run140541_event140973_TEcut3_profile.png
TRTtimeInfo_run140541_event140973_TEcut3_profile.eps
TRTtimeInfo_run140541_event171897_TEcut3_profile.png
TRTtimeInfo_run140541_event171897_TEcut3_profile.eps
TRTtimeInfo_run140541_event416712_TEcut3_profile.png
TRTtimeInfo_run140541_event416712_TEcut3_profile.eps

TRT hit efficiency

The following plots show the TRT hit reconstruction efficiency as a function of distance of closest approach of the track to the straw centre, i.e., distance to wire. The hit reconstruction efficiency is defined as the number of straws with a hit on the track divided by the number of straws crossed by the track. Only straws between the first and the last straw crossed by a track with a hit are considered, excluding the first and the last. The 2% of known non-functioning straws are excluded from this study. The tracks are required to have at least one pixel hit, six SCT and fifteen TRT hits; they are also required to have pT > 0.5 GeV, |d0| < 10 mm and |z0| < 300 mm. The efficiency is found to be 94% in the plateau region. The simulated threshold in the Monte Carlo was tuned to match the plateau efficiency measured in data. For similar measurements performed for the barrel using cosmic-rays with significantly larger average momentum, the hit efficiency was found to be 97%.

g_eff_locR_trt_b_fit_Distance_to_wire.png
g_eff_locR_trt_b_fit_Distance_to_wire.eps

g_eff_locR_trt_ec_fit_Distance_to_wire.png
g_eff_locR_trt_ec_fit_Distance_to_wire.eps

Transition radiation onset

The plots shows the probability of a TRT high-threshold (HT) hit as a function of the Lorentz factor gamma = E/m for the TRT barrel and end-caps, as measured in 900 GeV LHC collision events (December 2009).

At high values of gamma (above 1000), a pure sample of electrons is obtained from photon conversions. For low values of gamma, all selected tracks in the event are used and are assumed to have the mass of the charged pion. As expected from the production of transition radiation (TR), the probability of a HT hit increases for particles with a gamma-factor above 1000, which enables the TRT to separate electrons from pions over a momentum range between 1 GeV and 150 GeV.

The electrons are obtained from a sample of photon conversion candidates.These are selected by requiring two oppositely charged tracks, which originate from the same vertex, more than 40mm away from the beam axis. Both tracks are required to have at least four silicon hits and 20 TRT hits.When one track is identified as an electron (fraction of HT hits > 0.12), the other track is considered an electron candidate.The hadron tracks are required to have at least one b-layer hit and 20 TRT hits. Finally, to minimize the contamination of electrons, these tracks are required not to overlap with any conversion candidates.

The number of electron candidates is larger and at higher momentum in the end-caps due to the increased amount of material and general boost in the forward directions.The results seem to indicate that the onset of TR from the lower plateau (essentially corresponding to the probability of producing high-energy delta-rays) and the upper plateau (corresponding to the saturation of the transition radiation production in the geometry chosen for the TRT radiators foils and straw tubes) in the end-cap is steeper than for the barrel TRT.This is expected from test-beam measurements and from the different radiator materials used for the barrel (irregularly spaced fibres) and end-caps (regularly spaced foils). The results agree reasonably well with those obtained from minimum bias Monte Carlo simulation, and provide the TRT detector with an excellent starting point to study and optimize its particle identification properties.

HTonsetBarrel.png
HTonsetBarrel.eps

HTonsetEndcap.png
HTonsetEndcap.eps

TRT hit position residual

The following plots show the TRT unbiased residuals, as obtained from 900 GeV collision data and Monte Carlo, separately for the barrel and end-caps.The Monte Carlo distributions were normalized to the same number of entries as the data.

Tracks were required to have: pT > 1 GeV; |d0|<5mm; > 6 hits in SCT or Pixel; >= 14 hits in the TRT. Full-Width-Half-Maximum equivalent of a Gaussian distribution reported in the plots (FWHM/2.35) is comparable to the sigma of a single Gaussian fit: 147 mum (147 mum) and 174 mum (141 mum) for barrel and end-cap data (MC), respectively. For the latter, the fit was iterated until the range corresponded to +/- 1.5*sigma.The mean of the fit for all distributions is smaller in absolute value than 1 mum and is not shown.

For these low-momentum tracks, the width of the residual distribution is larger than the intrinsic accuracy per hit expected from the drift-time measurement because of the contribution from multiple scattering to the track parameter errors.The measured resolution in the end-caps is worse than in the barrel and than that expected from the Monte Carlo. More data are required to improve the overall alignment of the inner detector and of the TRT in the end-caps, since their geometry did not permit as detailed studies with cosmic rays as in the barrel.

rResidualBarrel.png
rResidualBarrel.eps
rResidualEndcap.png
rResidualEndcap.eps
The plots show the TRT R­T dependency obtained after calibration of run 141749 for the TRT Barrel and Endcaps. This R­T dependency provides the radius that corresponds to the measured drift time and this is needed to create the TRT drift circles used in the track reconstruction.

The R­T calibration was performed using “combinedInDetTracks” with at least 20 TRT hits and at least 1 SCT hit.

The black line corresponds to current result of calibration from run 141749. The blue dashed line in both plots shows the result from cosmic data for Xenon, solenoid field on obtained from the barrel.
The R­T dependence for collision and cosmic data is the same for the barrel. In the Endcaps there is slight difference for large drift time due to the difference in orientation between the barrel straws and Endcap straws in the magnetic field. This is first time we performed the R­T calibration on the Endcaps with real data.
Barrel.png
Barrel.eps
Endcaps.png
Endcaps.eps
The TRT event phase distribution for good luminosity blocks of run 141749. The TRT event phase is a measure of the time of the interaction including readout window offset and time of flight effects. It is determined using time measurements of TRT barrel hits on tracks averaging over all Inner Detector tracks with at least 10 TRT barrel hits.

The distribution demonstrates the accuracy of the time of event measured with TRT. Quoted sigma is the result of a single Gaussian fit to tange of +- 1.5 sigma around mean (repeating the fit until the result converges). The shift of mean from zero is due to asymmetric distribution of TRT hit time residual distribution.


ep_AvgShift1DFit_good.png
ep_AvgShift1DFit_good.eps
The event phase for TRT Barrel tracks as a function of the luminosity block number for run 141749 (see above for event phase description). The switch from the ATLAS internal clock to the LHC clock in luminosity block 22 is clearly seen. When using the ATLAS internal clock, event time is spread over 25 ns (one bunch crossing) as the frequencies of the two clocks are different. ep_vs_AvgLBShift_good.png
ep_vs_AvgLBShift_good.eps
TRT read-out timing as measured in 2009 beam splash data.

In beam splash events, there were many particles crossing each single straw. For that reason, leading edge signal (LE, coming from the electron that drifts for shortest distance) comes at the same time for all straws (assuming splash of particles is coming at the same time in different parts of the detector) and we can validate the read-out timing based on measured LE signal time.

With 2009 beam splash data, we were able to validate the TRT read-out timing and adjust a few remaining outliers (mostly in end-caps). Good internal synchronization of TRT read-out timing is very important as the variation in measured drift time (see above) is spread over most of the 75 ns read-out window. If part of the detector is read out either too late or too early, hits start falling outside the read-out window and are therefore not recorded.

The timing was measured for groups of straws that share the same Trigger Time Control line (TTC line or board; hardware read-out timing can be adjusted on a TTC line level). The top four figures show measured time for different parts of the detector. The one-dimensional distributions show the same in 1D distribution such that spread can be seen. One can see that the timing for all boards was already adjusted with very good precision before 2009 beam splash data (following studies using cosmic and 2008 beam splash data). The remaining few outliers were adjusted before the start of collision data taking.

The last plot illustrates time of flight effect in beam splash data, where particles from one beam are coming from one side. Similarly as shown above (using TRT timing to identify collision events), the time of flight effect need to be corrected for on side C (at negative z, for beam 2) as shown on this figure.
beamSplashTiming_barrelA_color.png beamSplashTiming_barrelA_color.png
eps file (barrel A) eps file (barrel C)
beamSplashTiming_endcapA_color_140370.png
eps file
beamSplashTiming_endcapC_color_140370.png
eps file
beamSplashTiming_barrel_distribution_140370.png
eps file
beamSplashTiming_endcap_distribution_140370.png
eps file
beamSplashTiming_endcap_ToF.png
eps file
A clear-cut description of the figure on the right hand side. Link to figure, or direct upload to TWiki. Please provide a png (or gif, jpg) and an eps version. Do not forget the "ATLAS preliminary" label on the plot.
... ...


Responsible: Project leaders
Last reviewed by: Never reviewed

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! Misplaced alignment tab character &.
l.17 \begin{math}\displaystyle &
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! Misplaced alignment tab character &.
l.17 \begin{math}\displaystyle <\mu&
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[1] (./dehGV1N4Ve.aux) )
(see the transcript file for additional information)
Output written on dehGV1N4Ve.dvi (1 page, 532 bytes).
Transcript written on dehGV1N4Ve.log.
Topic attachments
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PNGpng h_pResidualvsRadiusZ_EndcapA_sigma.TRTPerformanceNote.png r2 r1 manage 61.6 K 2011-08-31 - 10:36 UnknownUser  
PNGpng h_residual_Barrel_run182787.png r1 manage 103.4 K 2011-10-05 - 14:44 UnknownUser Residual Barrel
PNGpng h_residual_Endcap_run182787.png r1 manage 97.3 K 2011-10-05 - 14:44 UnknownUser Residual Endcap
PNGpng h_residual_Shortstraws_run182787.png r1 manage 103.4 K 2011-10-05 - 14:45 UnknownUser Residual Short Straws
PNGpng profile_allHT_new_vertex_run182787.png r1 manage 92.7 K 2011-10-05 - 14:46 UnknownUser Occupancy vs Nvtx all
Unknown file formateps profile_allHT_vertex.eps r1 manage 12.5 K 2011-10-05 - 14:47 UnknownUser Occupancy vs Nvtx HT
PNGpng profile_all_new_vertex_run182787.png r1 manage 95.6 K 2011-10-05 - 14:45 UnknownUser Occupancy vs Nvtx all
Unknown file formateps profile_all_vertex.eps r1 manage 13.0 K 2011-10-05 - 14:46 UnknownUser Occupancy vs Nvtx all
Unknown file formateps rResidualBarrel.eps r1 manage 12.9 K 2010-05-03 - 12:11 UnknownUser Hit position residual (barrel)
PNGpng rResidualBarrel.png r1 manage 17.5 K 2010-05-03 - 11:56 UnknownUser Hit position residual (barrel)
Unknown file formateps rResidualEndcap.eps r1 manage 12.9 K 2010-05-03 - 12:11 UnknownUser Hit position residual (end-caps)
PNGpng rResidualEndcap.png r1 manage 18.1 K 2010-05-03 - 11:56 UnknownUser Hit position residual (end-caps)
PDFpdf residualD_run264034_barrel_4.pdf r1 manage 15.8 K 2015-06-02 - 18:40 UnknownUser  
PNGpng residualD_run264034_barrel_4.png r1 manage 61.3 K 2015-06-02 - 19:02 UnknownUser  
PDFpdf residualT_run264034_barrel_4.pdf r1 manage 18.3 K 2015-06-02 - 18:40 UnknownUser  
PNGpng residualT_run264034_barrel_4.png r1 manage 65.1 K 2015-06-02 - 19:02 UnknownUser  
Unknown file formateps residuals_vertex.eps r1 manage 9.4 K 2011-08-31 - 09:29 UnknownUser  
PNGpng residuals_vertex.png r1 manage 19.7 K 2011-08-31 - 09:27 UnknownUser  
Unknown file formateps tResBarrel.eps r1 manage 14.1 K 2011-10-05 - 14:41 UnknownUser Time Residual in Barrel
Unknown file formateps tResEndcap.eps r1 manage 12.7 K 2011-10-05 - 14:42 UnknownUser Time Residual Endcap
PNGpng time_resolution_Barrel_run182787.png r1 manage 134.5 K 2011-10-05 - 14:42 UnknownUser Time Residual in Barrel
PNGpng time_resolution_Endcap_run182787.png r1 manage 121.4 K 2011-10-05 - 14:43 UnknownUser Time Residual Endcap
Unknown file formateps tubes_vs_p_vxp.eps r1 manage 55.7 K 2011-08-31 - 09:29 UnknownUser  
PNGpng tubes_vs_p_vxp.png r1 manage 58.7 K 2011-08-31 - 09:27 UnknownUser  
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Topic revision: r56 - 2017-07-14 - unknown
 
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