This page shows approved plots that demonstrate ATLAS TRT detector performance in collision data and can be shown by speakers at conferences and similar events.
If you are interested in having additional plots approved or in case of questions and/or suggestions, please contact the responsible project leader. See also ATLAS approval plots procedure.
Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker in Run 1 of the LHC: tracker properties:
Journal of Instrumentation, Volume 12, P05002 (2 May 2017)
Public Plots IDET201501 (17 February 2017)
TRT performance results from 13 TeV collision data (2015/2016):
Public plots TRT2016001 (03 August 2016)
Detailed comparison of the TRT digitization model with experimental data of 7 and 8 TeV runs:
ATLINDETPUB2014001 (updated 19.05.2014)
"Basic ATLAS TRT performance studies of Run 1" (3 March 2014).
TRT Occupancy at 25 ns BX spacing and validity gate effects:
ATLCOMPHYS20131348
"Inner Detector performance in 25 ns and 50 ns runs" (3 December 2013).
TRT performance at high occupancy in heavy ion collisions:
ATLCOMPHYS20121544
"TRT performance in HI collisions" (14 February 2013).
Additional plots of the TRT performance at high pileup:
ATLCOMPHYS2012468
"TRT occupancy and tracking performance with large pileup" (09 May 2012).
Track and vertex reconstruction performance at high pileup:
ATLASCONF2012042
"Performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector Track and Vertex Reconstruction in the High PileUp LHC Environment" (20 March 2012).
TRT PID performance based on 7 TeV collision data:
ATLASCONF2011128
"Particle Identification Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker" (18 August 2011).
Some TRT results related to alignment:
ATLASCONF2011012
"Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System with 2010 LHC protonproton collisions at sqrt{s} = 7 TeV" (8 March 2011).
TRT RT calibration procedure and results based on 7 TeV collision data:
ATLASCONF2011006
"Calibration of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker" (21 February 2011).
Any plots shown in this section are not necessarily "public"; they are intended to help explanations only.
Coverage:
The following two sets of pseudorapidity (η) ranges are commonly used in studies:
Possibly we need to redefine these regions in such a way that is meaningful for the studies.
The above definitions make sense when we consider PID where the eta regions contain similar rejection power:
See also:
The most recent available plots can be seen here Public plots TRT2016001 (03 August 2016)
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Overview Plots made with data from run 264034 (6 May 2015) – physics_MinBias stream – reconstruction tag f578 (collisions setup with tracking commissioning settings) – 900 GeV collisions, TRT filled with Argon in all straws 70%Ar, 27%CO2 and 3%O2. Track selection: – pT > 0.5 GeV – at least one silicon hit – at least 10 TRT hits Statistics: in total 230M hits on track passing this selection.  
Time distribution on track(Barrel) For any triggered event, the TRT reads out data over three bunch crossing periods with each crossing period divided in eight timebins. For each TRT straw, the information about whether the signal exceeds the threshold or not is thus recorded in bins of 3.12 ns. The first 0 to 1 transition marks the leading edge (LE) of the signal (hit). The drift time is defined as the leadingedge time, corrected for an offset described by a time calibration constant and corresponds to the time it takes for the closest primary electron cluster to drift to the wire. 
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Number of LL hits on track in time window Number of hits on track where the signal exceeds the low level(LL) threshold within a time window of [14.06,42.19] ns. The time window requirement preferentially rejects hits from out of time bunch crossings. The average number of TRT hits on tracks extracted is 31. 
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Position residuals The TRT unbiased hit residual distribution for the barrel as obtained from 900 GeV collision data, with all TRT straws filled with Argon gas. The residual is defined by the difference between the drift radius extracted from the drift time and the track radial position, measured for precision hits. The width as stated in the inlay was determined from an iterative fit resulting in a fit in the region of 1.5 sigma around the central value. The uncertainty of the width is less than 0.1 µm in all cases. The mean of the fit is smaller in absolute value than 1 µm and is not shown. Tracks for the position determination were selected to have pT > 0.5 GeV, at least one silicon hit and at least 10 TRT hits. For these lowmomentum tracks, the width of the residual distribution is larger than the intrinsic accuracy per hit expected from the drifttime measurement because of the contribution from multiple scattering to the track parameter errors. More data are required to improve the overall alignment of the inner detector and of the TRT. For a comparison with Xenon based mixture in 2011 data, see #TRTPublicResults#Results_from_7_TeV_collision_dat 
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Time residuals Time residual distributions for TRT barrel as obtained from 900 GeV collision data with all TRT straws filled with Argon gas. The time residual is defined as the difference between the leadingedge time, corrected for an offset described by a T0 calibration constant, and the expected drifttime estimated from the track position (for details see ATLASCONF2011006). The resolution was determined in an iterative fit procedure with a single gaussian in the range of +/ 1.5 sigma around the mean. Tracks for the position determination were selected to have pT > 0.5 GeV, at least one silicon hit and at least 10 TRT hits. For a comparison with Xenon based mixture in 2011 data, see #TRTPublicResults#Results_from_7_TeV_collision_dat 
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TRT R(T) relation This plot shows the TRT RT dependency for the TRT barrel as obtained from 900 GeV collision data with all TRT straws filled with Argon gas. This relation is used to infer track to wire distance, i.e., drift radius, based on measured drift time. To determine the RT relation, the raw time measurement is first corrected with a T0 calibration constant. This way, different signal delays for different parts of the detector are taken into account. In the next step, the track to wire distance distribution is fit in bins of measured drift time. The tracks are required to have pT > 0.5 GeV, at least one silicon hit and at least 10 TRT hits. For a comparison with Xenon based mixture in 2011 data, see #TRTPublicResults#Results_from_7_TeV_collision_dat 
png file / pdf file 
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Performance of the TRT PID capabilities with pileup The fraction of high threshold TRT hits on track for electron candidates is given as a function of expected pileup in different eta sections of the TRT. Pileup is quantified either by the number of primary vertices reconstructed by the inner detector or the average number of interactions per bunch crossing, which is proportional to LHC instantaneous luminosity. The absolute HT fraction varies across eta regions based on the amount of TRT radiator material traversed. data selection:
The plots were made separately for 5 different regions in eta corresponding to Barrel, Barrel/EndcapA, Endcap A, Endcap A/B and Endcap B

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Pion rejection vs eta Pion misidentification probability for HT fraction criteria that give 90% electron efficiency in bins of eta. This plot is an update of a public plot where only the result for data was shown. The simulated sample was analyzed in the same way as the data sample. The detector performance exceeds the simulationbased expectations, in particular in the endcap region (eta > 0.8). For more information on the analysis, selection criteria, data  simulation comparisons and other related results see ATLASCONF2011128. 
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Time residuals Time residual distributions for TRT barrel and endcaps. The time residual is defined as the difference between the leadingedge time, corrected for an offset described by a T0 calibration constant, and the expected drifttime estimated from the track position (for details see ATLASCONF2011006). The resolution was determined in an iterative fit procedure with a single gaussian in the range of +/ 1.5 sigma around the mean. The mean position of the gaussian reflects different T0 positions in data and MC. The observed widths of the distribution are 3.0 (3.1) ns in data and 3.1 (2.9) ns in MC in the barrel (endcap) region. Tracks for the position determination were selected to have pT > 2 GeV, do < 10 mm, zo < 300 mm and at least 15 TRT hits. The comparison with simulation is based on a dijet PYTHIA MC.

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Hit Residuals The hit residual distribution for barrel long straws, endcaps and barrel short straws. The short straws, for which the central part of the straw is not read out, have significantly lower occupancy. The residual is defined by the difference between the drift radius extracted from the drift time and the track radial position, measured for precision hits. The full histogram shows the MC simulation and the points the data. The width as stated in the inlay was determined from an iterative fit resulting in a fit in the region of 1.5 sigma around the central value. The uncertainty of the width is less than 0.1 μm in all cases. Tracks for the position determination were selected to have pT > 2 GeV, do < 10 mm, zo < 300 mm and at least 15 TRT hits. For these lowmomentum tracks, the width of the residual distribution is larger than the intrinsic accuracy per hit expected from the drifttime measurement because of the contribution from multiple scattering to the track parameter errors. The comparison with simulation is based on a dijet PYTHIA MC.

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Hit Occupancy Lowlevel hit occupancy and highlevel hit occupancy for different numbers of reconstructed primary vertices. The plots show the average for the three straw layers with highest and lowest occupancy in the barrel and endcap regions of the detector. This should represent the possible range of occupancy. The points show the distribution where the line is the Monte Carlo simulation. The observed offset differences in the barrel region can be associated to different noise levels and different physics at hard scatter, whereas differences in slope represent differences between data and simulation in the Minbias process and vertex finding efficiency. 
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Position Residuals Position residual width as a function of track pt for data and Monte Carlo for barrel (top) and endcap (bottom). Residuals rise at lower pt due to increased scattering of the track. 
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Position Residuals vs primary vertices Position residual width as a function of the number of reconstructed primary vertices found in the event. A track pt cut of 10 GeV is required so that the pt spectrum of tracks does not significantly change with added vertices. 
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Position Residual Maps Position residual width as a function of R and Z in data for barrel (top) and endcap A (bottom). The widening of residuals at large Z and large radius is reproduced by the simulation. 
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Tube Hit Fraction Fraction of TRT hits on track that are tube hits as a function of track pt, shown for events with different numbers of reconstructed primary vertices. 
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Occupancy Average occupancy and high threshold occupancy in data in the barrel and endcaps as a function of barrel straw layer and endcap wheel. Occupancies are shown for different numbers of reconstructed primary vertices. The first nine straw layers in the barrel are short straws, which have lower occupancy. The points with lowest occupancy correspond to events with zero reconstructed primary vertices. The highest points correspond to 11 reconstructed primary vertices. 
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Delta Occupancy Change in average (high threshold) occupancy with an added additional reconstructed primary vertex in the barrel and endcaps as a function of barrel straw layer and endcap wheel. The additional occupancy with every added reconstructed vertex is a measure of the intime background added by every minbias interaction. The first nine straw layers in the barrel are short straws, which have lower occupancy. 
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Predicted Occupancy Predicted intime (high threshold) occupancy as a function of barrel straw layer and endcap wheel for different values of pileup. The occupancies are calculated by using the delta occupancy plots to estimate the probability of a hit from an interaction. The first nine straw layers in the barrel are short straws, which have lower occupancy. 
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ToTbased dE/dX estimator The following plots show an estimator for specific energy loss based on the Time over Threshold (ToT) measured by the TRT. The estimator demonstrates the capability to use ToT as a variable for particle identification for heavily ionizing particles. The TRT measures the time when the signal exceeds low threshold in bins of 3.12 ns. The estimator is formed using the ToT measurement of all TRT hits on track. First, the average ToT for minimum ionizing particles (minimum bias tracks between total momenta of 2 GeV and 10 GeV) is found as a function of the track position in the straw (ToTmip), and then the average sum of the difference between the two, Σ(ToT ToTmip)/Nhits, is used as the estimator. The estimator is offset to be equal to 1 for minimum ionizing particles. Finally, corrections for variations with pseudorapidity are made for hits on tracks in the barrel and endcap. When plotted vs. the total momentum the dE/dx estimator shows the typical BetheBloch rise for kaons, protons and deuterons. A sample of approximately 17 million tracks collected during one run (155160) of 7 TeV collisions is used. The tracks are required to have at least one pixel, at least six SCT, and at least 15 TRT hits. The range of 0 <eta< 2 that is used includes both barrel and endcap regions of the detector. Track impact parameters are used to select 15.7M tracks from the primary vertex:d0 < 1 mm and z0 sin(θ) < 1 mm. Reversing both of these cuts gives 1.7M tracks not associated with the primary vertex and dominated by secondaries from hadronic interactions and conversions in the beam pipe and detectors. There are far more protons and deuterons than their corresponding antiparticles observed in this sample. 
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TRT RT relation
These plots show the TRT RT dependency for the TRT barrel and endcaps. This relation is used to infer track to wire distance, i.e., drift radius, based on measured drift time. 

Transition radiation onset

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TRT hit efficiency

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ToT for PID


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Onset curve High threshold probabilities for different particles in testbeam data as a function of Lorentz gamma factor. Show on the bottom is the formula used for the fit 
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Tuning the pion plateau Comparison of barrel high threshold probability between test beam data and simulation. On the top (bottom) the simulation is the pretuned transition radiation model with a high threshold setting of 6(6.25) keV and a transition radiation efficiency of 100%. A slight offset in the pion plateau is visible at 6 KeV, but good agreement is observed at 6.25 KeV. 
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Tuning the electron plateau Comparison of barrel high threshold probability between testbeam data and simulation. On the left (right), the simulation is the tuned TR model with a high threshold setting of 6.25keV and a TR efficiency of 100 (95)%. The pion plateau and the onset are well modeled by the simulation in both instances, but the electron plateau is only well modeled after tuning the TR efficiency. 
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dE/dX simulation Simulated dE/dx curve after tuning the lowenergy tail to data. Obtained by switching off transition radiation in the Monte Carlo simulation. 
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Fudge Function Fudge function that scales the number of photons in Monte Carlo simulation to reproduce the TR onset curve of data. The maximal allowed value of the fudge function is 2. 
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border=1 cellpadding=10 cellspacing=10> Event timing as measured in the TRT for a few selected events from run 140541 (the first run with collisions).
TRT readout timing was adjusted for collisions, therefore we can use raw hit time measurement to check timing of collision candidates and single beam events. TRT measures Leading Edge time (LE: 0 → 1 transition, used in tracking) and Trailing Edge time (TE: 1 → 0 transition, end of the signal). Noise hits have small TE − LE. In this study, we use TE because it does not depend much on track to wire distance. We use all hits with TELE > 10 ns (suppressing noise hits) and therefore do not even require tracking. We plot hit position to check that most of the hits are indeed hits from tracks. We even use no T0 calibration (since hardware T0 settings were adjusted with good enough precision).
The top plot shows the result for a beam 1 gas interaction event. Beam 1 is coming from side A (at positive z) to side C. Therefore, on side A, hits appear earlier than they would for collision events. The difference in measured timing (compared to tracks coming from the interaction point) is 2 * z / c = ( (z/mm) / 150 ) ns, as indicated with dashed blue line in figures. On side C, on the other hand, single beam event (either beam gas or beam halo) has similar timing as collision event.
The middle plot shows the same for the first ATLAS collision candidate, event 171897. The timing measured in TRT is consistent with collision event.
The bottom plot shows the same for a dijet candidate event. This event has less tracks on side A, hence larger errors. Nevertheless, the timing is shown to be consistent with collision event.
TRTtimeInfo_run140541_event140973_TEcut3_profile.eps
TRTtimeInfo_run140541_event171897_TEcut3_profile.eps
TRTtimeInfo_run140541_event416712_TEcut3_profile.eps
TRT hit efficiency The following plots show the TRT hit reconstruction efficiency as a function of distance of closest approach of the track to the straw centre, i.e., distance to wire. The hit reconstruction efficiency is defined as the number of straws with a hit on the track divided by the number of straws crossed by the track. Only straws between the first and the last straw crossed by a track with a hit are considered, excluding the first and the last. The 2% of known nonfunctioning straws are excluded from this study. The tracks are required to have at least one pixel hit, six SCT and fifteen TRT hits; they are also required to have pT > 0.5 GeV, d0 < 10 mm and z0 < 300 mm. The efficiency is found to be 94% in the plateau region. The simulated threshold in the Monte Carlo was tuned to match the plateau efficiency measured in data. For similar measurements performed for the barrel using cosmicrays with significantly larger average momentum, the hit efficiency was found to be 97%.

g_eff_locR_trt_b_fit_Distance_to_wire.eps

Transition radiation onset The plots shows the probability of a TRT highthreshold (HT) hit as a function of the Lorentz factor gamma = E/m for the TRT barrel and endcaps, as measured in 900 GeV LHC collision events (December 2009). At high values of gamma (above 1000), a pure sample of electrons is obtained from photon conversions. For low values of gamma, all selected tracks in the event are used and are assumed to have the mass of the charged pion. As expected from the production of transition radiation (TR), the probability of a HT hit increases for particles with a gammafactor above 1000, which enables the TRT to separate electrons from pions over a momentum range between 1 GeV and 150 GeV. The electrons are obtained from a sample of photon conversion candidates.These are selected by requiring two oppositely charged tracks, which originate from the same vertex, more than 40mm away from the beam axis. Both tracks are required to have at least four silicon hits and 20 TRT hits.When one track is identified as an electron (fraction of HT hits > 0.12), the other track is considered an electron candidate.The hadron tracks are required to have at least one blayer hit and 20 TRT hits. Finally, to minimize the contamination of electrons, these tracks are required not to overlap with any conversion candidates. The number of electron candidates is larger and at higher momentum in the endcaps due to the increased amount of material and general boost in the forward directions.The results seem to indicate that the onset of TR from the lower plateau (essentially corresponding to the probability of producing highenergy deltarays) and the upper plateau (corresponding to the saturation of the transition radiation production in the geometry chosen for the TRT radiators foils and straw tubes) in the endcap is steeper than for the barrel TRT.This is expected from testbeam measurements and from the different radiator materials used for the barrel (irregularly spaced fibres) and endcaps (regularly spaced foils). The results agree reasonably well with those obtained from minimum bias Monte Carlo simulation, and provide the TRT detector with an excellent starting point to study and optimize its particle identification properties.

HTonsetBarrel.eps

TRT hit position residual The following plots show the TRT unbiased residuals, as obtained from 900 GeV collision data and Monte Carlo, separately for the barrel and endcaps.The Monte Carlo distributions were normalized to the same number of entries as the data. Tracks were required to have: pT > 1 GeV; d0<5mm; > 6 hits in SCT or Pixel; >= 14 hits in the TRT. FullWidthHalfMaximum equivalent of a Gaussian distribution reported in the plots (FWHM/2.35) is comparable to the sigma of a single Gaussian fit: 147 mum (147 mum) and 174 mum (141 mum) for barrel and endcap data (MC), respectively. For the latter, the fit was iterated until the range corresponded to +/ 1.5*sigma.The mean of the fit for all distributions is smaller in absolute value than 1 mum and is not shown. For these lowmomentum tracks, the width of the residual distribution is larger than the intrinsic accuracy per hit expected from the drifttime measurement because of the contribution from multiple scattering to the track parameter errors.The measured resolution in the endcaps is worse than in the barrel and than that expected from the Monte Carlo. More data are required to improve the overall alignment of the inner detector and of the TRT in the endcaps, since their geometry did not permit as detailed studies with cosmic rays as in the barrel.

rResidualBarrel.eps rResidualEndcap.eps 
The plots show the TRT RT dependency obtained after calibration of run 141749 for the TRT Barrel and Endcaps.
This RT dependency provides the radius that corresponds to the measured drift time and this is needed to create the TRT drift circles used in the track reconstruction. The RT calibration was performed using “combinedInDetTracks” with at least 20 TRT hits and at least 1 SCT hit. The black line corresponds to current result of calibration from run 141749. The blue dashed line in both plots shows the result from cosmic data for Xenon, solenoid field on obtained from the barrel. The RT dependence for collision and cosmic data is the same for the barrel. In the Endcaps there is slight difference for large drift time due to the difference in orientation between the barrel straws and Endcap straws in the magnetic field. This is first time we performed the RT calibration on the Endcaps with real data. 
Barrel.eps Endcaps.eps 
The TRT event phase distribution for good luminosity blocks of run 141749. The TRT event phase is a measure of the time of the interaction including readout window offset and time of flight effects. It is determined using time measurements of TRT barrel hits on tracks averaging over all Inner Detector tracks with at least 10 TRT barrel hits. The distribution demonstrates the accuracy of the time of event measured with TRT. Quoted sigma is the result of a single Gaussian fit to tange of + 1.5 sigma around mean (repeating the fit until the result converges). The shift of mean from zero is due to asymmetric distribution of TRT hit time residual distribution.  ep_AvgShift1DFit_good.eps 
The event phase for TRT Barrel tracks as a function of the luminosity block number for run 141749 (see above for event phase description). The switch from the ATLAS internal clock to the LHC clock in luminosity block 22 is clearly seen. When using the ATLAS internal clock, event time is spread over 25 ns (one bunch crossing) as the frequencies of the two clocks are different.  ep_vs_AvgLBShift_good.eps 
TRT readout timing as measured in 2009 beam splash data. In beam splash events, there were many particles crossing each single straw. For that reason, leading edge signal (LE, coming from the electron that drifts for shortest distance) comes at the same time for all straws (assuming splash of particles is coming at the same time in different parts of the detector) and we can validate the readout timing based on measured LE signal time. With 2009 beam splash data, we were able to validate the TRT readout timing and adjust a few remaining outliers (mostly in endcaps). Good internal synchronization of TRT readout timing is very important as the variation in measured drift time (see above) is spread over most of the 75 ns readout window. If part of the detector is read out either too late or too early, hits start falling outside the readout window and are therefore not recorded. The timing was measured for groups of straws that share the same Trigger Time Control line (TTC line or board; hardware readout timing can be adjusted on a TTC line level). The top four figures show measured time for different parts of the detector. The onedimensional distributions show the same in 1D distribution such that spread can be seen. One can see that the timing for all boards was already adjusted with very good precision before 2009 beam splash data (following studies using cosmic and 2008 beam splash data). The remaining few outliers were adjusted before the start of collision data taking. The last plot illustrates time of flight effect in beam splash data, where particles from one beam are coming from one side. Similarly as shown above (using TRT timing to identify collision events), the time of flight effect need to be corrected for on side C (at negative z, for beam 2) as shown on this figure. 
eps file (barrel A) eps file (barrel C) eps file eps file eps file eps file eps file 
A clearcut description of the figure on the right hand side.  Link to figure, or direct upload to TWiki. Please provide a png (or gif, jpg) and an eps version. Do not forget the "ATLAS preliminary" label on the plot. 
...  ... 
Responsible: Project leaders
Last reviewed by: Never reviewed
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