Introduction to Si-W ECAL

Particle colliders are used to investigate the nature of particles and their interactions at high energies.

The Linear Collider is designed collide electrons and positrons at energies of up to 1 TeV. One or more detectors will be used to record what occurred in these collisions. Each detector is made up of several sub-detectors, designed to measure different properties of the various types of particles.

Heavy bosons (W, Z, H) will often be produced in these collisions. The identification of these particles is the key to understanding the underlying physics processes which produce them. These bosons predominantly decay to a quark anti-quark pair. In order to identify the nature of the boson, it is necessary to accurately measure the quarks' energy. This is complicated by the fact that quarks cannot exist as solitary particles, but always combine with one or more quarks and/or anti-quarks. At high energies, each quark gives rise to a narrow "jet" containing of order 10 particles.

To accurately measure this jet can be complicated, since it usually contains several types of particle, which each interact in a different way with the different sub-detectors. A technique, known as Particle Flow, has been developed to measure jets' energy in an optimal way. It attempts to individually measure the energy of each particle in the jet, rather than measuring the total jet energy at once. This allows the specific properties of each particle to be taken into account when combining the measurements made by each sub-detector.

To see each particle individually requires a detector with very high resolution, or high "granularity", so that nearby particles can be cleanly resolved.

We are developing one of the sub-detectors which will make up the detector. Its main aim is to measure the energy, position and angle of photons, electrons and positrons, and to separate them from other types of particles (which will be measured by other sub-detectors). Photons, electrons and positrons interact largely through the electromagnetic interaction, so this sub-detector is known as an Electromagnetic Calorimeter (or ECAL for short).

-- DanielJeans - 17-Jun-2010

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