This page explains the development of Phase-1 pixel online monitoring system and its representative features. It also illustrates the distribution of temperature within different layers/disks of the pixel detector. It contains module leakage current evolution of both pixel barrel and endcap through the whole phase-1 operation period (2017 ~ 2018). The picture below is the panel of the monitoring interface, which is a webpage for visualizing and monitoring the following parameters online and offline. It consists of many drop-down menus for users to access and plot different detector related parameters. There are also links to other relevant websites or tools. The function of this system is to centralize and correlate detector information to have a good overview on the detector performance, and also to provide users with an easier access.

monitorinterface.png

The summary of the categories of variables that this tool provides are listed below:

Environment variables Detector parameters CMS Run variable property
Dew point Power supply voltage Luminosity
Air pressure Power group current Detector run status
Air temperature Module temperature Data acquisition status
Himidity Cooling flow status Data quality monitoring
... ... ...

Figure in png formatother formatsDescription
HVLumiCorrelation.png null
  • The trend of instantaneous luminosity & HV current of sector 1 in layer 3 of Pixel Barrel (BpI), during a normal LHC fill 7320 (CMS Run 324968, CMS Run 324970) (2018.10.19 14:49 2018.11.20 05:58).
  • The HV current (leakage current) was dropping through the decreasing instantaneous luminosity.
  • Emittance scan took place after the stable beam of p-p collision established , which leaded to some fluctuations of luminosity and leakage current.
  • At the end of the fill, pixel HV went off (STANDBY mode).
digitaloccupancy.png null
  • The digital occupancy of pixel layer 4 during CMS Run Number 322013 (2018.08.31).
  • There are four half cylinders, each cylinder has 32 ladders, and each ladder has 4 modules, and each module has 8 readout chips.
  • In the plot, one bin corresponds to one readout chip (ROC).
  • Every red marked rectangle represent a region recorded with entries in database of known problems (keep track).
BPix_L1_temperature_2D_cosmic.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel temperature gradient along each cooling loop (layer 1) during cosmic rays.
  • Each cooling loop has three temperature probes, which are located respectively at the beginning (inlet), middle, end (outlet) positions
  • These groups of temperature were obtained during CMS Run Number 320448 (Cosmic run on Jul.28)
  • It shows the gradient of the temperature along each cooling loop of Pixel Barrel layer 1 (totally 4 cooling loops)
  • As expected for CO2 cooling, the temperature at the outlet is lower than at the inlet
  • Empty units: no valid reading
BPix_L1_temperature_2D_collision.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel temperature gradient along each cooling loop (layer 1) during pp collisions.
  • Each cooling loop has three temperature probes, which are located respectively at the beginning (inlet), middle, end (outlet) positions
  • These groups of temperature were obtained during CMS Run Number 322625 (stable beam run on Sep.10)
  • It shows the gradient of the temperature along each cooling loop of Pixel Barrel layer 1 (totally 4 cooling loops)
  • As expected for CO2 cooling, the temperature at the outlet is lower than at the inlet
  • Empty units: no valid reading
BPix_L2_temperature_2D_cosmic.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel temperature gradient along each cooling loop (layer 2) during cosmic rays.
  • Each cooling loop has three temperature probes, which are located respectively at the beginning (inlet), middle, end (outlet) positions
  • These groups of temperature were obtained during CMS Run Number 320448 (Cosmic run on Jul.28)
  • It shows the gradient of the temperature along each cooling loop of Pixel Barrel layer 2 (totally 4 cooling loops)
  • As expected for CO2 cooling, the temperature at the outlet is lower than at the inlet
  • Empty units: no valid reading
BPix_L2_temperature_2D_collision.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel temperature gradient along each cooling loop (layer 2) during pp collisions.
  • Each cooling loop has three temperature probes, which are located respectively at the beginning (inlet), middle, end (outlet) positions
  • These groups of temperature were obtained during CMS Run Number 322625 (stable beam run on Sep.10)
  • It shows the gradient of the temperature along each cooling loop of Pixel Barrel layer 2 (totally 4 cooling loops)
  • As expected for CO2 cooling, the temperature at the outlet is lower than at the inlet
  • Empty units: no valid reading
BPix_L3_temperature_2D_cosmic.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel temperature gradient along each cooling loop (layer 3) during cosmic rays.
  • Each cooling loop has three temperature probes, which are located respectively at the beginning (inlet), middle, end (outlet) positions
  • These groups of temperature were obtained during CMS Run Number 320448 (Cosmic run on Jul.28)
  • It shows the gradient of the temperature along each cooling loop of Pixel Barrel layer 3 (totally 8 cooling loops)
  • As expected for CO2 cooling, the temperature at the outlet is lower than at the inlet
  • Empty units: no valid reading
BPix_L3_temperature_2D_collision.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel temperature gradient along each cooling loop (layer 3) during pp collisions.
  • Each cooling loop has three temperature probes, which are located respectively at the beginning (inlet), middle, end (outlet) positions
  • These groups of temperature were obtained during CMS Run Number 322625 (stable beam run on Sep.10)
  • It shows the gradient of the temperature along each cooling loop of Pixel Barrel layer 3 (totally 8 cooling loops)
  • As expected for CO2 cooling, the temperature at the outlet is lower than at the inlet
  • Empty units: no valid reading
BPix_L4_temperature_2D_cosmic.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel temperature gradient along each cooling loop (layer 4) during cosmic rays.
  • Each cooling loop has three temperature probes, which are located respectively at the beginning (inlet), middle, end (outlet) positions
  • These groups of temperature were obtained during CMS Run Number 320448 (Cosmic run on Jul.28)
  • It shows the gradient of the temperature along each cooling loop of Pixel Barrel layer 4 (totally 8 cooling loops)
  • As expected for CO2 cooling, the temperature at the outlet is lower than at the inlet
BPix_L4_temperature_2D_collision.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel temperature gradient along each cooling loop (layer 4) during pp collisions.
  • Each cooling loop has three temperature probes, which are located respectively at the beginning (inlet), middle, end (outlet) positions
  • These groups of temperature were obtained during CMS Run Number 322625 (stable beam run on Sep.10)
  • It shows the gradient of the temperature along each cooling loop of Pixel Barrel layer 4 (totally 8 cooling loops)
  • As expected for CO2 cooling, the temperature at the outlet is lower than at the inlet
BPix_LAY1_temperatureVSflow2D_cosmic.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel temperature w.r.t azimuthal coordinate (layer 1)
  • Temperature measured with cosmic rays
  • The azimuthal coordinate yields the CMS coordinates
  • Layer 1 has 4 cooling loops, each of which covers approximately one quadrant in azimuthal plane
  • Each cooling loop has three temperature probes (few of them give invalid readings -- excluded from the plots)
  • Assume each temperature probe occupies the one third of the azimuthal plane coverage of each cooling loop
  • As a result of the 2-phase state of CO2 cooling flow, decreased CO2 flow leads to its absorbing heat more sufficiently, resulting in more efficient cooling, lower temperature, less temperature spread
BPix_LAY1_temperatureVSflow2D_collision.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel temperature w.r.t azimuthal coordinate (layer 1)
  • Temperature measured with pp beams
  • The azimuthal coordinate yields the CMS coordinates
  • Layer 1 has 4 cooling loops, each of which covers approximately one quadrant in azimuthal plane
  • Each cooling loop has three temperature probes (few of them give invalid readings -- excluded from the plots)
  • Assume each temperature probe occupies the one third of the azimuthal plane coverage of each cooling loop
  • As a result of the 2-phase state of CO2 cooling flow, decreased CO2 flow leads to its absorbing heat more sufficiently, resulting in more efficient cooling, lower temperature, less temperature spread
BPix_LAY2_temperatureVSflow2D_cosmic.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel temperature w.r.t azimuthal coordinate (layer 2)
  • Temperature measured with cosmic rays
  • The azimuthal coordinate yields the CMS coordinates
  • Layer 2 has 4 cooling loops (black arrows pointing to the directions of cooling flows), each of which covers approximately one quadrant in azimuthal plane
  • Each cooling loop has three temperature probes (few of them give invalid readings excluded from the plots)
  • Assume each temperature probe occupies the one third of the azimuthal plane coverage of each cooling loop
  • As a result of the 2-phase state of CO2 cooling flow, decreased CO2 flow leads to its absorbing heat more sufficiently, resulting in more efficient cooling, lower temperature, less temperature spread
BPix_LAY2_temperatureVSflow2D_collision.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel temperature w.r.t azimuthal coordinate (layer 2)
  • Temperature measured with pp beams
  • The azimuthal coordinate yields the CMS coordinates
  • Layer 2 has 4 cooling loops, each of which covers approximately one quadrant in azimuthal plane
  • Each cooling loop has three temperature probes (few of them give invalid readings excluded from the plots)
  • Assume each temperature probe occupies the one third of the azimuthal plane coverage of each cooling loop
  • As a result of the 2-phase state of CO2 cooling flow, decreased CO2 flow leads to its absorbing heat more sufficiently, resulting in more efficient cooling, lower temperature, less temperature spread
BPix_LAY3_temperatureVSflow2D_cosmic.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel temperature w.r.t azimuthal coordinate (layer 3)
  • Temperature measured with cosmic rays
  • The azimuthal coordinate yields the CMS coordinates
  • Layer 3 has 8 cooling loops, each of which covers approximately one quadrant in azimuthal plane
  • Each cooling loop has three temperature probes (few of them give invalid readings excluded from the plots)
  • Assume each temperature probe occupies the one third of the azimuthal plane coverage of each cooling loop
  • As a result of the 2-phase state of CO2 cooling flow, decreased CO2 flow leads to its absorbing heat more sufficiently, resulting in more efficient cooling, lower temperature, less temperature spread
BPix_LAY3_temperatureVSflow2D_collision.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel temperature w.r.t azimuthal coordinate (layer 3)
  • Temperature measured with pp beams
  • The azimuthal coordinate yields the CMS coordinates
  • Layer 3 has 8 cooling loops, each of which covers approximately one quadrant in azimuthal plane
  • Each cooling loop has three temperature probes (few of them give invalid readings excluded from the plots)
  • Assume each temperature probe occupies the one third of the azimuthal plane coverage of each cooling loop
  • As a result of the 2-phase state of CO2 cooling flow, decreased CO2 flow leads to its absorbing heat more sufficiently, resulting in more efficient cooling, lower temperature, less temperature spread
BPix_LAY4_temperatureVSflow2D_cosmic.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel temperature w.r.t azimuthal coordinate (layer 4)
  • Temperature measured with cosmic rays
  • The azimuthal coordinate yields the CMS coordinates
  • Layer 4 has 8 cooling loops, each of which covers approximately one quadrant in azimuthal plane
  • Each cooling loop has three temperature probes
  • Assume each temperature probe occupies the one third of the azimuthal plane coverage of each cooling loop
  • As a result of the 2-phase state of CO2 cooling flow, decreased CO2 flow leads to its absorbing heat more sufficiently, resulting in more efficient cooling, lower temperature, less temperature spread
BPix_LAY4_temperatureVSflow2D_collision.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel temperature w.r.t azimuthal coordinate (layer 4)
  • Temperature measured with pp beams
  • The azimuthal coordinate yields the CMS coordinates
  • Layer 4 has 8 cooling loops, each of which covers approximately one quadrant in azimuthal plane
  • Each cooling loop has three temperature probes
  • Assume each temperature probe occupies the one third of the azimuthal plane coverage of each cooling loop
  • As a result of the 2-phase state of CO2 cooling flow, decreased CO2 flow leads to its absorbing heat more sufficiently, resulting in more efficient cooling, lower temperature, less temperature spread
FPix_Disk_1_leakageCurrent_2D_collision.png pdf
  • Pixel endcap leakage current distribution
  • Pixel endcap detector consists of two endcaps or cylinders
  • Each half cylinder is a quadrant with 3 disks
  • HV currents were measured at 10 minutes after stable beam declared during LHC nominal fill 7144 (Sep.9th)
  • Currents were normalized by the number of connected readout chips (ROC) for each power group
  • Each cylinder consists of 2 rings, and modules in RING1 are closer to the beam than those in RING2, so higher leakage current is observed in RING1 than in RING2
  • The module leakage current distribution in the same ring is roughly uniform
  • Note: a power group in disk 1 has significant high current that has been seen since 2017, to be investigated during the long shut down 2 (LS2)
FPix_Disk_2_leakageCurrent_2D_collision.png pdf
  • Pixel endcap leakage current distribution
  • Pixel endcap detector consists of two endcaps or cylinders
  • Each half cylinder is a quadrant with 3 disks
  • HV currents were measured at 10 minutes after stable beam declared during LHC nominal fill 7144 (Sep.9th)
  • Currents were normalized by the number of connected readout chips (ROC) for each power group
  • Each cylinder consists of 2 rings, and modules in RING1 are closer to the beam than those in RING2, so higher leakage current is observed in RING1 than in RING2
  • The module leakage current distribution in the same ring is roughly uniform
  • Note: a power group in disk 1 has significant high current that has been seen since 2017, to be investigated during the long shut down 2 (LS2)
FPix_Disk_3_leakageCurrent_2D_collision.png pdf
  • Pixel endcap leakage current distribution
  • Pixel endcap detector consists of two endcaps or cylinders
  • Each half cylinder is a quadrant with 3 disks
  • HV currents were measured at 10 minutes after stable beam declared during LHC nominal fill 7144 (Sep.9th)
  • Currents were normalized by the number of connected readout chips (ROC) for each power group
  • Each cylinder consists of 2 rings, and modules in RING1 are closer to the beam than those in RING2, so higher leakage current is observed in RING1 than in RING2
  • The module leakage current distribution in the same ring is roughly uniform
  • Note: a power group in disk 1 has significant high current that has been seen since 2017, to be investigated during the long shut down 2 (LS2)
BPix_leakEvo_label.png pdf
  • Pixel barrel module leakage current evolution
  • LHC fills from beginning of 2017 until end of October in 2018 data-taking are employed (proton-proton collisions)
  • Currents measured within 20 minutes from Stable Beam declaration
  • Average current per pixel module measured from power groups (no temperature correction)
  • Leakage current increased gradually due to accumulated radiation dose through the year
  • Closer to beam spot -> more accumulated radiation dose -> higher leakage current (layer 1 > layer 2 > layer 3 > layer 4)
  • There are some drops of leakage current from the global trend because of:
    • Annealing during Machine development or technical stop period
    • Power supply replacement
    • HV setting change
FPix_leakEvo_label.png pdf
  • Pixel endcap module leakage current evolution
  • LHC fills from beginning of 2017 until end of October in 2018 data-taking are employed (proton-proton collisions)
  • Currents measured within 20 minutes from Stable Beam declaration
  • Average current per pixel module measured from power groups (no temperature correction)
  • Note: The 4th power group giving much higher current in disk 1 (seen in slide 25) is removed from the average
  • Leakage current increased gradually due to accumulated radiation dose through the year
  • Closer to beam spot -> more accumulated radiation dose -> higher leakage current (ring 1 > ring 2)
  • There are some drops of leakage current from the global trend because of:
    • Annealing during Machine development or technical stop period
    • Power supply replacement
    • HV setting change
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