FCC Home   FCCIS Home      

FCC Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
A Physics The ampere (symbol: A) is the base unit of electric current in the International System of Units (SI). English fr.: Ampere
A15 Engineering A15 is the Strukturbericht notation for the crystal structure of Cr3Si, originally reported for β-tungsten. This structure is shared by a family of intermetallic compounds with the formula A3B, where A is a transition metal. Several of these compounds, with $A = Nb$ or $V$, are superconducting with a critical temperature Tc of around 20 K and an upper critical magnetic field Hc2 exceeding 20 T. The most commonly applied example is Nb3Sn. English n/a
ab Physics An attobarn corresponds to an area equal to 10-46 m2. English n/a
ABCI Physics The azimuthal beam cavity interaction is software which solves the Maxwell equations directly in the time domain when a bunched beam goes through an axi-symmetric structure on or off axis. An arbitrary charge distribution can be defined by the user English n/a
AC Engineering Alternating current. English n/a
ADC Engineering Analogue-to-digital converter. English n/a
Alcove Civil Engineering An alcove is a recessed area open from a larger room but enclosed by walls, pillars, or other architectural elements. English n/a
AE Host states Autorité environnementale French Environmental Authority
AMD Civil Engineering Adiabatic matching device English n/a
AMO Management Assistant à maîtrise d’ouvrage French Project owner support, assistant to the contracting authority
APB Environment Arrêté de Protection de Biotope French Biotope protection order
Ar Physics Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18. English n/a
ARAF Host state Autorité de Régulation des Activités Ferroviaires French en: French government agency for rail transport regulation
Arc Physics A circular collider is composed of curved cells called arcs that are separated by straight sections (see LSS). An arc half-cell forms the periodic part of the arc lattice (see lattice). English n/a
ArcGIS Enterprise ICT A desktop GIS software developed by ESRI English n/a
ArcGIS Pro ICT A GIS software foundation consisting of ArcGIS Portal, ArcGIS Server and ArcGIS Data Store English n/a
ARMCO Engineering American Rolling Mill Company pure iron became synonymous with the purest steel mill produced iron with a purity of more than 99.85 % Fe. English n/a
ASIC Engineering An application-specific integrated circuit is an integrated circuit (IC) customised for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use. English n/a
ATLAS Physics A toroidal LHC apparatus is one of the seven particle detector experiments constructed at the LHC. English n/a

B

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
B Engineering The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number English n/a
b Engineering The bit, a binary digit, is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications. A binary digit can have only one of two values, and may be physically represented with a two-state device English n/a
Bi Physics The dispersion function of a beam line is determined by the strength and placement of dipole magnets. As a consequence, dipole field errors also contribute to the dispersion function. Multipole components corresponding to a magnetic flux distribution, which can be added up are denoted by Bi and Ai. B1 corresponds to a normal dipole component, B2 to a normal quadrupole component, B3 to a normal sextupole component, A1 to a skew dipole, A2 to a skew quadrupole and A3 to a skew sectupole English n/a
barn Physics A barn (symbol: b) is a unit of area equal to 10−28 m2. It is best understood as a measure of the probability of interaction between small particles. A barn is approximately the cross-sectional area of a uranium nucleus English n/a
BCS Physics Theory named after John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Robert Schrieffer. It is the first microscopic theory of superconductivity since Heike Kamerlingh Onnes’s 1911 discovery. The theory describes superconductivity as a microscopic effect caused by a condensation of Cooper pairs into a boson-like state English n/a
Be Physics Beryllium is a rare chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number English n/a
Beam pipe Physics Volumes of different shape (e.g. cylindrical, conical, flanges and bellows) and material (e.g. metallic, ceramic) used to transport the beam. The ultrahigh vacuum within it reduces beam-gas interactions to a level at which the beam lifetime is acceptable English fr: tube de faisceau
Beam line Physics A series of functional elements, such as magnets and vacuum pipe, which carry the beam from one portion of the accelerator to another English fr: faisceau
Beamscreen Physics Perforated tube inserted into the cold bore of the superconducting magnets in order to protect the cold bore from synchrotron radiation and ion bombardment English fr: écran de faisceau
Beta function Physics An optical function proportional to the square of the local transverse beam size. The beta function describes how the beam width changes around the accelerator. There are separate β-functions for the x and y planes English n/a
B-factory Physics A B-factory, or sometimes a beauty factory, is a particle collider exper?iment designed to produce and detect a large number of B mesons so that their properties and behaviour can be measured with small statistical uncertainty. Tauons and D mesons are also copiously produced at B-factories English n/a
BFPP Physics Bound-free pair production is one of the new types of processes that occur in relativistic collisions of atoms and ions. It is the production of an electron-positron pair with the electron not produced as a free state but as a bound state of one of the ions English n/a
Bhabha scattering Physics The electron-positron scattering process: e+e − → e+e − There are two leading-order Feynman diagrams contributing to this interaction: an annihilation process and a scattering process English n/a
BHWIDE Physics A Monte Carlo event generator software simulating Bhabha-scattering, developed for linear collider detector luminosity studies English n/a
BIM Physics Building information modeling is a process involving the generation and management of digital representations of physical and functional characteristics of places English n/a
Blanket contract Procurement An agreement to spend a predetermined amount with a specified vendor over a period of time. This type of contract can also list items or services that the vendor will provide. English fr. contrat-cadre
BLM Physics Beam loss monitor English fr: moniteur de perte de faisceau
BOM Procurement Bill of Materials English fr: nomenclature
BPM Physics Beam position monitor English fr: moniteur de position de faisceau
Bq Physics The becquerel is the SI derived unit of radioactivity. One becquerel is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second. The becquerel is therefore equivalent to an inverse second, s1 English n/a
BR Physics In particle physics and nuclear physics, the branching ratio for a decay is the fraction of particles which decay by an individual decay mode with respect to the total number of particles which decay English n/a
BR (machine) Physics The booster ring is an accelerator in the collider tunnel, which provides the particle collider continuously with particles at collision energy English n/a
BRGM Host states Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières French en: Office for Geological and Mining Research
BS Physics Beamstrahlung, the radiation from one beam of charged particles in storage rings, linear or circular colliders, namely the synchrotron radiation emitted due to the electromagnetic field of the opposing beam English n/a
BSCCO Physics Bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide (pronounced “bisko”), is a family of high-temperature superconductors. Specific types of BSCCO are usually referred to using the sequence of the numbers of the metallic ions. Thus Bi-2201 is the n = 1 compound (Bi2Sr2CuO6 +x), Bi-2212 is the n =2 compound (Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +x), and Bi-2223 is the n = 3 compound (Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 +x) English n/a
BSM Physics Beyond Standard Model English n/a
Bunch Physics A group of particles captured inside a longitudinal phase space bucket English n/a
BX Physics Bunch crossing English n/a

C

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
C Physics The coulomb (symbol: C) is the SI (international system of units) unit of electric charge. It is the charge (symbol: Q or q) transported by a constant current of one ampere in one second English n/a
Call-off Contract Procurement An order or individual contract that is issued to purchase specified quantities of supplies or performance of services under a framework contract. See also "Release Order" English fr.: commande
C band Physics The C band is a designation by the IEEE (institute of electrical and electronics engineers) for a part of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spec?trum covering frequencies from 4 to 8 gigahertz English n/a
C++ Engineering An object-oriented programming language English n/a
CAD Engineering Computer-Aided Design is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimisation of a design English n/a
CAF Engineering A compressed air foam system is used in firefighting to deliver fire retardant foam for the purpose of extinguishing a fire or protecting unburned areas English n/a
CAPEX Procurement Capital expenditures are the funds used to acquire or upgrade fixed assets, such as expenditures towards property, plant, or equipment English n/a
Carnot Efficiency Engineering Carnot efficiency describes the maximum thermal efficiency that a heat engine can achieve as permitted by the second law of thermodynamics English n/a
CBA Procurement Cost-benefit analysis is a systematic process for estimating and comparing benefits and costs of a project. The purpose of CBA is to facilitate a more efficient allocation of resources, demonstrating the convenience for society of a particular intervention rather than possible alternatives English fr: Analyse coût-bénéfice
CC60 Physics The CC60 facility at CERN uses a 60Co source for the qualification of components against TID effects English n/a
CCI Host state Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie French  
CCT Physics A canted-cosine-theta magnet is an accelerator magnet that superposes fields of nested and tilted solenoids that are oppositely canted English n/a
CDR Organisation A conceptual design report completes the first stage of the ESFRI roadmap methodology, permitting concept screening, consortium formation, access policy and funding concept preparation, scientific and project leadership definition English n/a
CD-DR Host states Conseil Départemental – Direction des routes French n/a
CE Organisation Civil Engineering English fr.: génie civil
CEA Host states Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique French Eng: French alternative energies and atomic energy commission
CepC Physics The circular electron positron collider is an electron-positron collider proposed by the Chinese high energy physics community, acting as a Higgs-factory in a new tunnel 80–100 km in length English n/a
CEREMA Host states Centre d'études et d'expertise sur les risques, l'environnement, la mobilité et l'aménagement French n/a
CETU Host states Centre d’Études des Tunnels French n/a
CFC Environment Carbon fibre composite English fr: composite carbon
CFD Engineering Computional fluid dynamics uses numerical analysis to solve and analyse problems that involve fluid flows English n/a
CGDD Host states Commissariat général au développement durable French n/a
CGEDD Host states The Conseil Général de l’Environnement et du Développement Durable is the "Environmental Authority" assigned to FCC by the French government. French n/a
CH4 Physics Methane is a chemical compound English n/a
CHARM Physics CERN high energy accelerator mixed field facility, located in the CERN east area, supplies a wide spectrum of radiation types and energies English n/a
CHF Currency ISO code of the Swiss franc currency English n/a
Chilled Water Engineering Chilled water is a commodity used to cool a building’s air and equipment. It’s temperature is between 4◦C and 7◦C English / n/a
CIR Engineering Circuit English n/a
CIXP Engineering CERN internet exchange point English n/a
CL Procurement Confidence level English n/a
CLD Physics The CLic detector is a conceptual design for an experiment detector at CLic, which also serves as a design model for an experiment detector at the FCC-ee English n/a
CLIC Physics The compact linear collider (CLIC) is a concept for a future linear electron-positron collider in a new tunnel, ranging from 11 to 50 km, depending on the collision energy. English  
CLIC-dp Physics The CLIC detector and physics study is an international collaboration currently composed of 30 institutions English n/a
CLIQ Physics The coupling-loss-induced quench method is a superconducting magnet protection approach English n/a
CM Physics Cold mass English n/a
CMM Engineering Coordinated measuring machines English n/a
CMS Physics The compact muon solenoid is one of the seven particle detector experiments constructed at the LHC English  
CMOS Physics Complementary metal oxide semiconductor is a technology for constructing integrated circuits patented in 1963 by Frank Wanlass while working for Fairchild Semiconductor English n/a
CNDP Host states Commission Nationale du Débat Public The French “Commission nationale du débat public” was created in 1995 and is since 2002 an independent administration authority. The organisation ensures that the public participates in the process of construction projects of national interest French Eng: National commission for public debate
CNES Host states Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales French Eng: The National Centre for Space Studies is the French government’s space agency
CNRS Host state Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France French en: National center for scientific research
COL Physics Collimation English n/a
Collision Physics A close encounter of particles during which dynamic quantities such as energy, momentum, and charge may be exchanged. English  
Company Procurement A legal entity representing an association of people, whether natural, legal or a mixture of both, with a specific objective. The term is a synonym for "firm". English fr.: entreprise
Comsol Engineering A cross-platform, finite element analysis, solver and multiphysics simulation software developed by private company COMSOL Inc. (Sweden). It allows conventional physics-based user interfaces and coupled systems of partial differential equations English n/a
Cooper pair Physics Two electrons that appear to “team up” in accordance with theory, BCS or other, despite the fact that they both have a negative charge and normally repel each other. Below the superconducting transition temperature, paired electrons form a condensate, a macroscopically occupied single quantum state, which flows without resistance. However, since only a small fraction of the electrons are paired, the bulk does not qualify as being a “Bose-Einstein condensate English n/a
COTS Procurement Commercial-off-the-shelf English n/a
CP Physics Charge conjugation parity symmetry is the product of two symmetries: C for charge conjugation, which transforms a particle into its antiparticle, and P for parity, which creates the mirror image of a physical system. The strong interaction and electromagnetic interaction seem to be invariant under the combined CP transformation operation, but this symmetry is slightly violated during certain types of weak decay. Historically, CP-symmetry was proposed to restore order after the discovery of parity violation in the 1950s English n/a
Cr2O3 Physics Chromium(III) oxide is an inorganic compound. It is one of the principal oxides of chromium and is used as a pigment. In nature, it occurs as the rare mineral eskolaite English n/a
Critical temperature Physics Temperature Tc below which characteristics of superconductivity appear. The value varies from material to material and depends on the magnetic field English fr: température critique
Cryo magnet Physics Complete magnet system integrated in a cryostat, including main magnet coils, collars and cryostat, correction magnets and powering circuits English n/a
Cryogenic system Physics A system that operates below a temperature set by convention at 150 K (−123.15◦C) English fr: système cryogénique
CST Physics Computer simulation technology is a computational tool from Dassault Systems for 3D electromagnetic design and analysis English n/a
Cu Physics Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29 English fr: cuivre
CW Physics A continuous wave is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency, almost always a sine wave, that for mathematical analysis is considered to be of infinite duration English n/a
Cybersecurity Engineering Cybersecurity is the protection of computer systems from theft or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide English fr: cybersécurité

D

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
DA Physics Dynamic Aperture English n/a
DAΦNE Physics The double annular Φ factory for nice experiments is an electron-positron collider at the INFN Frascati National Laboratory in Frascati, Italy. It has been colliding electrons and positrons at a centre of mass energy of 1.02 GeV to create ϕ mesons since 1999 English n/a
DAQ Engineering Data acquisition English fr: acquisition de données
Dark matter Physics Invisible matter that makes up 26% of the universe and which can only be detected from its gravitational effects. Only 4% of the matter in the Universe are visible. The remaining 70% are accounted to dark energy English fr: matière noire
dB Physics The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale. When expressing power quantities, the number of decibels is ten times the logarithm to base 10 of the ratio of two power quantities. That is, a change in power by a factor of 10 corresponds to a 10 dB change in level English n/a
DC Physics Direct current English fr: courant direct
DCAL Physics Digital hadron calorimeter English n/a
DCCT Physics A direct current-current transformer is a current-to-voltage transducer, employed when measurement of very high current is required English n/a
DCF Host State Direction des circulations ferroviaires French  
DCH Physics Drift CHamber English n/a
DD4hep Physics A detector description toolkit for high energy physics English n/a
DDT Host states Direction départementale des Territoires French en.: Departmental directorate of the territory
DELPHES Engineering Delphes is a C++ framework, performing a fast multipurpose detector response simulation. The simulation includes a tracking system, embedded into a magnetic field, calorimeters and a muon system English n/a
DELPHI Physics The detector with lepton, photon and hadron identification was one of the four main detectors of the large electron-positron collider (LEP) English n/a
DESY Physics The German electron synchrotron (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron) German n/a
DFAE Host states The Département Fédéral des Affaires Etrangères is the Swiss foreign ministry French n/a
DI Host states Département des infrastructures French en.: infrastructures department of the canton of Geneva
Dipole Physics A magnet with two poles, like the north and south poles of a horseshoe magnet. Dipoles are used in particle accelerators to keep particles moving in a circular orbit English n/a
DIS Engineering Dispersion processor English n/a
DM Physics Dark matter English fr: matière noire
DN Engineering Diametre nominal, the European equivalent of NPS (nominal pipe size) defines a set of nominal pipe sizes in standard ISO 6708. The dimensionless number after the letters DN indicate the physical size in millimetres of the bore English n/a
DOE Host states The United States Department of Energy English n/a
DPA Physics Displacement per atom English n/a
DR Physics Damping Ring, reduces the emittances produced by the particle source to the small values required for the collider. Emittance reduction is achieved via the process of radiation damping, i.e. the combination of synchrotron radiation in bending fields with energy gain in RF cavities English n/a
DRAM Engineering Dynamic random-access memory English n/a
DREAL Host states Direction régionale de l'Environnement, de l'Aménagement et du Logement French en.: Regional directorate for environment, development and housing
DT Host states Département du territoire French en.: territorial department of the canton of Geneva
DVR Engineering Dynamic Voltage Restorer English n/a
Dynamic aperture Physics Maximum transverse oscillation amplitude that guarantees stable particle motion over a given number of turns. If the motion amplitude of a particle exceeds this threshold, the betatron oscillation of the particle will not have any bounds, and the motion will become unstable, leading to loss of the particle. It is expressed in multiples of the beam size together with the associated number of turns. Unlike the physical aperture, dynamic aperture separating stable and unstable trajectories is not a hard boundary English n/a
Dynistor Engineering A dynistor is an unidirectional thyristor breakover diode. It can be used as switches in micro- and nanosecond power pulse generators English n/a

E

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
EASITrain Organisation European Advanced Superconductivity Innovation and Training A H2020 EC funded Marie Slodovska Curie innovative training network project to advance superconducting wire and thin film technologies as well as cryogenic refrigeration systems for particle accelerators English n/a
EBC Environment Espace boisé classé French Classified wooded area
EBITDA Procurement A company’s earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortisation is an accounting measure calculated using a company’s net earnings, before interest expenses, taxes, depreciation, and amortisation are subtracted, as a proxy for a company’s current operating profitability (i.e. how much profit it makes with its present assets and its operations on the products it produces and sells, as well as providing a proxy for cash flow English n/a
EC Physics Electron Cloud English fr: nuage d'électrons
ECal Engineering Electromagnetic calorimeter (also ECAL) English n/a
ECFA Organisation European Committee for Future Accelerators English n/a
Eddy Current Physics Eddy currents are loops of electrical current induced within conductors by a changing magnetic field in the conductor due to Faraday’s law of induction. Eddy currents flow in closed loops within conductors, in planes perpendicular to the magnetic field English n/a
EDLC Engineering Electrical double-layer capacitors English n/a
EES Engineering Energy extraction system English n/a
EFT Physics An effective field theory is a type of approximation, or effective theory, for an underlying physical theory, such as a quantum field theory or a statistical mechanics model English n/a
EHF Physics ElectroHydraulic Forming is a type of metal forming in which an electric arc discharge in liquid is used to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy and change the shape of the workpiece English n/a
EIA Environment Environmental Impact assessment English n/a
EIE Environment Etude de l'impact environmental, Swiss name for the environmental impact assessment in the scope of the OEIE French  
EIR Physics Experimental Insertion Region : place in the particle collider hosting the interaction region in which the two beams are brought to collision and the surrounding particle physics experiments. English  
Electron cloud Physics A cloud of electrons generated inside an accelerator beam pipe due to gas ionisation, photoemission from synchrotron radiation, or “beam-induced multipacting” via electron acceleration in the field of the beam and secondary emission. Electron clouds may cause single- and multi-bunch beam instabilities as well as additional heat load on the beamscreen inside the cold magnets English fr: nuage d'électrons
Electronvolt Physics In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately 1.6×10−19 joules (symbol J) in SI units. By definition, it is the amount of energy gained (or lost) by the charge of a single electron moving across an electric potential difference of one volt. The electronvolt is not an SI unit, and its definition is empirical. By massenergy equivalence, the electronvolt is also a unit of mass, expressed in units of eV/c2, where c is the speed of light in vacuum English n/a
Electroweak symmetry breaking Physics Although electromagnetism and the weak force have the same strength at high energies, electromagnetism is much stronger than the weak force in our everyday experience. The mechanism by which, at low energies, a single unified electroweak force appears as two separate forces is called electroweak symmetry breaking English n/a
EM Physics Electro magnetic English fr: électro- magnétique
EMB Engineering Electromagnetic Barrel Calorimeter English n/a
EMEC Engineering Endcap electromagnetic calorimeter English n/a
EMF Engineering Forward electromagnetic calorimeter English n/a
Emittance Physics The area in phase space occupied by a particle beam. The units are mm-milliradians for transverse emittance and eV·s for longitudinal emittance English n/a
EMS Environment Environmental Management System English n/a
EN Organisation European norms are documents that have been ratified by one of the three ESOs (European Standardisation Organisations), CEN, CENELEC or ETSI; recognised as competent in the area of voluntary technical standardisation as for the EU Regulation 1025/2012. English  
EOT Engineering The most common type of overhead crane, found in many factories. These cranes are electrically operated by a control or remote control pendant, or from an operator cabin attached to the crane English n/a
Enquête parcellaire Host states Procédure d'identification des propriétaires et détermination des parcelles ( Code de l'expropriation pour cause d'utilité publique, articles R131-1 à R132-4) French en.: land plot identification process according to french law
ENS Environment Espace Naturel Sensible French Environmentally Sensitive Area
EPFL Organisation The Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne is one of the two Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology. English n/a
EPPSU Organisation European Particle Physics Strategy Update English n/a
EPSF Host State Etablissement Public de Securité Ferroviaire French en: Public Insitute for railway safety
ERC Environment Eviter, réduire, compenser French en.: Avoid, reduce, compensate
ERL Physics Energy recovery Linac English n/a
ERMC Engineering Enhanced Racetrack Model Coil English n/a
ES Physics Electro Static English n/a
ESD Physics Electron-Stimulated Desorption English n/a
ESFRI Organisation European Strategy Forum for Research Infrastructures English n/a
Espoo Convention Environment The Espoo Convention sets out the obligations of parties to assess the environmental impact of certain activities at an early stage of planning. It also lays down the general obligation of states to notify and consult each other on all major projects under consideration that are likely to have a significant adverse environmental impact across boundaries English n/a
ESPP Organisation European Strategy for Particle Physics English fr.: Stratégie européenne pour la physique des particules
ESRF Organisation The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is a joint research facility situated in Grenoble, France, and supported by 22 countries (13 member countries: France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russia and 9 associate countries: Austria, Portugal, Israel, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, India and South Africa). English  
ESS Engineering Energy storage system English n/a
ETHZ Organisation The Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich is one of the two Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology English  
Étude agricole Host states Analyse de l'état initial de l'économie agricole du territoire concerné et des effets du projet ( Code rural D112-1-18) French en.: agricultural study according to french law
EU Organisation European Union English fr: Union Européenne
EuCARD2 Organisation A FP7 EC funded research and development project in the area of particle accelerator technologies. English n/a
EuroCirCol Organisation A H2020 EC funded research and development project to develop the foundations of a future circular hadron collider. English n/a
EW Physics Electroweak English n/a
EWPO Physics Electroweak precision observables English n/a
EWPT Physics Electroweak phase transition English n/a
EWSB Physics Electroweak symmetry breaking English n/a
EXP Physics Experiment English fr: expérience
Experiment insertion region Physics Place in the particle collider hosting the interac?tion region in which the two beams are brought to collision and the surrounding particle physics experiments English n/a
EXT Physics Extraction English n/a

F

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
fb Physics A femtobarn corresponds to an area equal to 10−43 m2 English n/a
FCC Organisation Future Circular Collider: Future circular collider is a feasibility study aiming at the development of conceptual designs for future particle colliders with energies and intensities at the frontier, based on a technically feasible and affordable circular layout permitting staged implementation English fr: Futur collisionneur circulaire
FCC FS Organisation Future Circular Collider Feasibility Study English fr.: Futur collisionneur circulaire Étude de faisabilité
FCCIS Organisation Future Circular Collider Innovation Study H2020 EU-cofunded project English fr.: n/a
FCC-ee Organisation Future Circular Collider electron-positron collider. A luminosity frontier particle collider. English fr.: n/a
FCC-eh Organisation Future circular energy-frontier electron-hadron collider interaction point scenario. The scenario foresees an energy recovery linac (ERL) to generate electron beams and to collide them with high-energetic proton or ion beams of a hadron collider in a new circular tunnel of about 100 km length English n/a
FCC-hh Organisation Future Circular Collider hadron-hadron collider. An energy frontier particle collider. English fr.: n/a
FCC-int Organisation Future Circular Collider integrated programme with FCC-ee in the first phase and FCC-hh in the second phase. English fr.: n/a
FDS Engineering Fire Dynamics Simulator is a software developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Commerce National Institute of Standards and Technology for the simulation of smoke and heat transport from fires English n/a
FED Engineering Fractional effective dose English n/a
FEM Organisation European Federation of Material Handling English n/a
FF Physics Final focus English n/a
FIB Physics An FIB setup is a scientific instrument that resembles a scanning electron microscope (SEM). However, while the SEM uses a focused beam of electrons to image the sample in the chamber, a FIB setup uses a focused beam of ions instead English n/a
FinFET Engineering A type of non-planar or “3D” field effect transistor used in the design of modern processors. The transistor architecture uses raised channels called “fins”, from source to drain English n/a
Firm Procurement A legal entity representing an association of people, whether natural, legal or a mixture of both, with a specific objective. The term is a synonym for "company". English fr.: entreprise
FLUKA Physics A particle physics Monte Carlo simulation package for high energy experimental physics and engineering, shielding, detector and telescope design, cosmic ray studies, dosimetry, medical physics and radio-biology English n/a
Flux pinning Physics In practical applications, a type II superconductor in a magnetic field is usually in the mixed state, in which the superconducting material is penetrated by magnetic flux. When carrying a current, a force (the Lorentz force) acts on these flux lines. If this was not opposed, the resulting movement of flux would result in energy dissipation, rendering the material useless for current-carrying applications. Flux pinning is the phenomenon by which defects in a superconducting material immobilise flux lines, producing a pinning force to oppose the Lorentz force. The volumetric flux pinning force effectively defines the Jc of a type II superconductor. The type of defects providing effective flux pinning depend on the material (e.g. grain boundaries in Nb3Sn English n/a
FMA Physics Radioactive waste of “faible et moyenne activité” (low and intermediate activity), the classification depends on the level of activity and on the radionuclides English n/a
FMECA   The Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis is a bottom-up, inductive analytical method which may be performed at either the functional or piece/part level. It is used to chart the probability of failure modes against the severity of their consequences. The result highlights failure modes with relatively high probability and severity of consequences, allowing remedial effort to be directed where it will produce the greatest value English n/a
FNAL Organisation Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory English n/a
FODO Physics The focusing and defocusing cell is a widespread lattice concept for designing a particle accelerator based on a magnet structure consisting alternately of focusing and defocusing quadrupole lenses English n/a
FPC Engineering Fixed power coupler English n/a
FPGA Engineering A field-programmable gate array is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing English n/a
Free (air) cooling Engineering Free cooling is an economical method of using low external air temperatures to assist in chilling water, which can then be used for industrial processes, or air conditioning systems English n/a
FS Project management Feasibility Study English fr: étude de faisabilité
FSI Engineering Frequency scanning interferometry English n/a

G

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
GANTT Project management A type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule English n/a
GB Information Technology A gigabyte is by definition of the IEC, 109 B English n/a
Gd Physics Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64 English n/a
Gd2O3 Physics Gadolinium(III) oxide is an inorganic compound. It is one of the most commonly available forms of the rare-earth element gadolinium, derivatives of which are potential contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging English n/a
GEANT4 Physics GEANT4 is a platform for the simulation of the passage of particles through matter using Monte Carlo methods. It is the successor of the GEANT series of software toolkits developed by CERN English n/a
GeniLac Engineering A project planned in Geneva to use the water of lake Geneva for cooling and heating of public buildings and international organisations English n/a
Geophysical survey Engineering systematic collection of geophysical data for spatial studies. Typical methods are seismic, geodetic, magnetic, electrical and remote sensing. English n/a
Geotechnical investigation Engineering Surface and subsurface exploration of a site. Typical methods are soil sampling with borings, in-situ tests and laboratory tests of retrieved soil samples. English n/a
GIS Software Geographic information system English fr.: SIG
GESDEC Host states The canton of Geneva "Service de géologie, sols et déchets" French n/a
GeV Physics 10 9 electronvolt English n/a
Gfitter Engineering A generic fitter software for for the statistical analysis of parameter estimation problems in high-energy physics English n/a
GHz Physics 109 Hz English n/a
Gif++ Physics The gamma irradiation facility is located in the CERN north area. It combines a 137Cs source with a high-energy particle beam from the SPS H4 beam line English n/a
GIM Physics In quantum field theory, the GIM mechanism (or Glashow-Iliopoulos-Maiani mechanism) is the mechanism through which flavour-changing neutral currents (FCNCs) are suppressed in loop diagrams. It also explains why weak interactions that change strangeness by 2 are suppressed, while those that change strangeness by 1 are allowed, but only in charged current interactions English n/a
GIS Geodesy Geographical Information System English n/a
GNSS Geodesy Global Navigation Satellite System English fr.: Géolocalisation et Navigation par un Système de Satellites
GRI Organisation A global research infrastructure is mandated by the G8+5 and addresses worldwide science and technology challenges, following the “GSO Framework for Global Research Infrastructures”. The GSO maintains a list of potential GRIs English n/a
GRN Geodesy Geodetic Reference Network English n/a
Group of firms Procurement The term means a consortium, joint venture or any other arrangement between legal entities for the joint submission of a bid and the joint execution of the Contract but it excludes subcontractors. English n/a
GSO Organisation Group of senior officials mandated by G8+5 to develop GRI concepts English n/a
GTO Physics A gate turn-off thyristor (GTO) is a special type of thyristor, which is a highpower semiconductor device. It acts as a bistable switch, conducting when the gate receives a current trigger, and continuing to conduct until the voltage across the device is reversed biased, or until the voltage is removed. GTOs, as opposed to normal thyristors, are fully controllable switches which can be turned on and off by their third lead, the gate lead English n/a
Guinea-Pig++ Physics An electron-positron beam-beam simulation software developed at CERN English n/a
GV Physics 10 9 volt English n/a
GV (vacuum) Physics Gate Valve English fr: robinet-vanne
Gy Physics The gray (symbol: Gy) is a derived unit of ionising radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI). It is defined as the absorption of one joule of radiation energy per kilogram of matter English n/a

H

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
H Physics The Higgs boson (symbol: H) is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics, produced by the quantum excitation of the Higgs field. The particle has a spin of 0 English n/a
H2020 Organisation Horizon 2020 is an EU Research and Innovation funding programme over 7 years (2014–2020). It is the financial instrument implementing the “Innovation Union”, a Europe 2020 flagship initiative aimed at securing Europe’s global competitiveness. English n/a
Hc Physics The critical magnetic field of a superconductor. For current-carrying and magnet applications of a type II superconductor, in practice the upper critical field Hc2 must be considered instead English n/a
Hc2 Physics The upper critical magnetic field of a type II superconductor, above which the material enters the normal state and does not show superconducting behaviour English n/a
ha Envionment The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100 m sides, or 1 ha = 10 000 m2 English n/a
Hadron Physics A subatomic particle that contains quarks, antiquarks, and gluons, and so experiences the strong force. The proton is the most common hadron English n/a
HB Physics Barrel hadron calorimeter English n/a
HCAL Physics Hadron calorimeter English n/a
HCal Physics Hadron calorimeter English n/a
HEB Physics High Energy Booster English n/a
HEC Physics Endcap Hadron Calorimeter English n/a
HEH Physics High energy hadron fluence, i.e. hadrons with energies greater than 20 MeV English n/a
HEIKA Physics The high efficiency international Klystron activity was initiated at CERN in 2014 to evaluate and develop new bunching technologies for high-efficiency Klystrons English n/a
HEL Physics Hollow Electron Lens English n/a
HE-LHC Physics High-energy large hadron collider. A new particle collider with about twice the LHC collision energy in the existing LHC tunnel, using technologies conceived for the FCC-hh English n/a
HERA Physics The hadron-elektron-ringanlage was a particle accelerator at DESY in Hamburg. It began operating in 1992. At HERA, electrons or positrons were collided with protons at a center of mass energy of 318 GeV. It was the only lepton-proton collider in the world while operating. HERA was closed down on 30 June 2007. German en: hadron-electron ring accelerator
HF Physics Hadron forward calorimeter English n/a
HFSS Engineering A 3D electromagnetic simulation software for designing and simulating highfrequency electronic products from ANSYS English n/a
HIE-ISOLDE Physics The high-intensity and energy upgrade of ISOLDE project incorporates a new linear accelerator (linac) into CERN’s ISOLDE facility (isotope mass separator on-line device) English n/a
Higgs Boson Physics An elementary particle linked with a mechanism to model, how particles acquire mass. English n/a
HiRadMat Physics The high-radiation to materials facility at CERN provides highintensity pulsed beams to an irradiation area where material samples as well as accelerator component assemblies can be tested English n/a
HL-LHC Physics High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC to a levelled constant luminosity of 5 × 1034 cm2s−1. A dedicated FP7 design study (HiLumi LHC DS) precedes the implementation of the upgrade. English fr.: Le LHC à haute luminosité
HLS Engineering Hydrostatic Levelling System English n/a
HLT Physics High Level Trigger English n/a
HOM Physics Higher Order Modes are undesired Eigenmodes parasitically excited in a resonant (accelerating) radiofrequency cavity English n/a
HRASI Civil Engineering High Risk Area Site Investigations English fr.: explorations des zones présentant des défis particuliers
HSE Organisation CERN's Health, Safety and Environment unit English fr.: Unité de la santé et de la sécurité au travail et de la protection de l'environnement
HTML Information Technology Hypertext Markup Language English n/a
HTS Physics High temperature superconductors have critical temperatures above 77 K English n/a
HTTP Information Technology Hypertext transfer protocol English n/a
HV Engineering High Voltage English fr: haute tension
HVDC Engineering High voltage direct current power distribution English fr: Distribution d'énergie en courant continu à haute tension
HX Engineering Heat exchanger English fr: échangeur de chaleur
Hz Physics The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second English n/a

I

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
IBS Physics Iron-based superconductors (IBS) are iron-containing chemical compounds whose superconducting properties were discovered in 2006 English n/a
IC Engineering Integrated circuit English fr: circuit intégré
ICPE Environment Installations classées protection de l'environnement French en.: facility or project requiring environmental impact assessment.
ICS Engineering Inverse compton scattering English n/a
ICT Engineering Information and communications technology English fr: technologies de l'information et de la communication
IDEA Physics The International Detector for Electron Accelerator is a conceptual design for an experiment detector at the FCC-ee English n/a
IEEE Organisation The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is is the world’s largest association of technical professionals. Its objectives are the educational and technical advancement of electrical and electronic engineering, telecommunications, computer engineering and allied disciplines English n/a
ILC Physics The International Linear Collider is a proposed linear electron-positron particle collider aiming at collision energies of 500 GeV and an upgrade to 1000 GeV (1 TeV) English n/a
Impedance Physics A quantity that quantifies the self-interaction of a charged particle beam, mediated by the beam environment, such as the vacuum chamber, RF cavities, and other elements encountered along the accelerator or storage ring English n/a
INFN Organisation Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare is the Italian research agency dedicated to the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws that govern them, under the supervision of the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research. Italian en: The National Institute for Nuclear Physics
INJ Engineering Injection English n/a
Innovation Engineering New ideas that respond to societal or economic needs and generate new products, services, business and organisational models that are successfully introduced into an existing market and are able to create new markets and that contribute value to society English n/a
Invar Physics Also known generically as FeNi36 (64FeNi in the US), is a nickel-iron alloy notable for its uniquely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). The name Invar comes from the word invariable, referring to its relative lack of expansion or contraction with temperature changes. It was invented in 1896 by Swiss physicist Charles Edouard Guillaume. He received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1920 for this discovery, which enabled improvements in scientific instruments English n/a
Ion Physics An atom or molecule that is not electrically neutral but that carries a positive or negative charge (electrons removed or added) English n/a
IP Physics Interaction Point English fr: point d'interaction
IPC Physics Incoherent Pair Creation English n/a
IR Physics Interaction Region English fr: région d'interaction
IrCe Physics Iridium-cerium is an alloy used as a photocathode English n/a
ISD Physics Ion-Stimulated Desorption English n/a
ISO Organisation The International Organisation for Standardisation is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organisation English n/a
ISO 14000 Environment A family of standards and norms related to environmental management defining a process to minimize the negative effects of a product, process or project on the environmental. English n/a
ISO 14001 Environment A standard that defines the criteria for an Environmental Management System English n/a
ISO 14006 Environment A standard and norm that defines how to incorporate "ecodesign" into an environmental management system. English
ISO 31000 Environment A family of standards and norms relating to risk management. English n/a
ISOS Host states Inventaire fédéral des sites construits d'importance nationale à protéger en Suisse. French Federal inventory of construction sites of national importance to be protected in Switzerland
IT Engineering Information Technology English fr: Technologie de l'information
ITE Engineering Installation Terminale Embranchée French  
ITER Organisation ITER is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering project. It is an experimental Tokamak fusion reactor that is being built next to the Cadarache facility in Saint-Paul-lèz-Durance, in Provence, southern France. n/a n/a
ITS Engineering Inner Tracking System English n/a
IVS Host states Inventaire des Voies de communication historiques de la Suisse French en: Inventory of historic communication routes in Switzerland

J

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
J Physics The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units. It is equal to the energy transferred to or work done on an object when a force of one newton acts on that object in the direction of its motion through a distance of one metre. It is also the energy dissipated as heat when an electric current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second English n/a
Jc Physics The scientific notation representing the “critical current density” or maximum current that a superconductor can carry. As the current flowing through a superconductor increases, the Tc will usually decrease English n/a
JLab Organisation Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), commonly called Jefferson Lab or JLab English n/a

K

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
K Physics See Kelvin    
Karst Geology Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves English fr: karst
kB IT A kilobyte refers traditionally to 1024 bytes. In december 1998, the IEC defined 2 10 = 1024 bytes as 1 kibiyte (KiB) English n/a
KEKB Physics KEKB is a particle accelerator used in the Belle experiment to study CP violation. KEKB is located at the KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation) in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan English n/a
Kelvin Physics Unit of measurement for temperature (K) using as null point the absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases. 0 K = −273.15◦C English n/a
keV Physics 10 3 electronvolt English n/a
kg Physics The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as “Le Grand K” or “Big K”), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France English n/a
KLOE Physics A particle physics experiment at the INFN Frascati National Laboratory, Italy English n/a
KlyC Engineering Software developed at CERN for the optimisation and design of high efficiency Klystrons based on new bunching mechanisms English n/a
Klystron Engineering A specialised linear-beam vacuum tube, which is used as an amplifier for high radio frequencies English n/a
Kr Physics Krypton is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36 English n/a
kW Physics 10 3 Watt English n/a

L

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
l Mathematics The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbol l in this document) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1000 cubic centimetres or 1/1000 cubic metre English n/a
L Physics The distance from the IP to the start of the magnetic field of the first magnet closest to the IP. The physical equipment is larger and is closer to the IP English n/a
LAL Organisation Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire of CNRS in Orsay in France French n/a
LAr Physics Liquid Argon English n/a
LASE Engineering Laser-ablated surface engineering English n/a
Lattice Physics In accelerator physics, a magnetic lattice is a composition of electromagnets at given longitudinal positions around the vacuum tube of a particle accelerator, and thus along the path of the enclosed charged particle beam. Many lattices are composed of identical substructures or cells, which denote a special magnet arrangement that may reoccur at several positions along the path English  
LCA Project Management Life Cycle Analysis English fr: analyse du cycle de vie
LCB Engineering Lower cold box English  
LCBI Physics Longitudinal coupled bunch instability English  
LCCS Engineering Local Chromatic Correction System English  
LEP Physics The large electron–positron collider, which was operated at CERN until 2000 English n/a
LEP3 Physics A concept for an electron-positron collider in the existing LHC tunnel with a centre-of-mass of 240 GeV and a peak luminosity of 1 × 10 34 cm−2 s −1 at each of two experiments English n/a
Lepton Physics A class of elementary particles that do not experience the strong force. The electron is the most common lepton English n/a
LF Physics Low Field English  
LFV Physics Lepton flavour violation English n/a
LGAD Engineering Low gain avalanche detectors English n/a
LHC Physics The large hadron collider is a circular particle collider for protons and heavy ions with a design centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV for proton-proton collisions at a peak luminosity of 1 × 1034 cm2s−1 at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. English Grand collisionneur de hadrons
LHCb Physics The large hadron collider beauty experiment is one of the seven particle detector experiments constructed at the LHC English  
LHeC Physics A study to extend the current LHC collider with an energy recovery linac (ERL) to generate electron beams and to collide them with high-energetic proton or ion beams of the LHC English  
LIL Physics LEP injector linac English  
Limestone Geology Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) English fr: calcaire
LINAC Physics A linear accelerator for charged particles in which a number of successive radiofrequency cavities that are powered and phased such that the particles passing through them receive successive increments of energy English n/a
Linac4 Physics The linear accelerator 4 at CERN accelerates negative hydrogen ions (H−, consisting of a hydrogen atom with an additional electron) to 160 MeV to prepare them to enter the PSB (proton synchrotron booster), which is part of the LHC injection chain English  
LIU Physics LHC injector upgrade English n/a
LLRF Physics Low Level RF English n/a
LN 2 Physics Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature English n/a
LSP Physics Lightest supersymmetric particle English n/a
LSS Engineering Long straight section: quasi-straight segments of a circular collider, which are available for beam interactions or utility insertions (e.g. injection, extraction, collimation, RF) English  
LTO Physics Lithium titanium oxide English n/a
LTS Physics Low temperature superconductors have critical temperatures below 77 K English n/a
Luminometer Engineering A calorimeter inside the detector to precisely measure the luminosity English n/a
Luminosity Physics Luminosity is the rate of collision events normalised to the cross section. It is expressed as inverse square centimetre and inverse second (cm−2 s −1 ) or barn (1 barn = 10−24 cm2 ) English fr: luminosité
LV Physics Low Voltage n/a

M

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
MAC Engineering The medium access control sublayer and the logical link control (LLC) sublayer together make up the data link layer (DLL). Within that data link layer, the LLC provides flow control and multiplexing for the logical link (i.e. EtherType, 802.1Q VLAN tag), while the MAC provides flow control and multiplexing for the transmission medium. MAC is responsible for the transmission of data packets to and from the network-interface card, and to and from another remotely shared channel English  
MAD-X Engineering MAD-X is a project and computational physics software to aid particle accelerator design and simulation English  
MADX-PTC Engineering MAD X polymorphic tracking code English  
MAPS Engineering Monolithic active pixel sensor. A silicon detector technology for high-energy physics particle detectors - English  
MB Engineering A megabyte are by definition of the IEC, 1 000 000 bytes (106 B) English  
MC Engineering Main Corrector Magnet English  
MCHF Currency 10 6 CHF English  
MD (magnet) Physics Main dipole English  
MDI Physics The machine detector interface refers to the topics and regions where the beamlines of the accelerator overlap with the physics experiment’s detector. Key elements include mechanical support of final beamline elements, luminosity monitoring, feedback, background suppression and radiation shielding English  
MDISim Engineering A tool set developed in the frame of the FCC study for Machine Detector Interface SIMulations using and combining the standard tools MAD-X, ROOT and GEANT4 English  
MDT Engineering Monitored drift tube English  
MEG Physics A particle physics experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland English n/a
MeV Physics 10 6 electronvolt English  
MgB2 Physics Magnesium diboride is the inorganic compound. It is a dark gray, water-insoluble solid. The compound becomes superconducting at 39 K English n/a
MGy Physics 10 6 gray English n/a
MHz Physics 10 6 Hz English  
MI Physics Microwave Instability English  
MIIT Physics Millions of amp squared seconds. A performance indicator of a superconducting cable that determines two primary factors of the adequate quench protection system: how quickly the current in the magnet must be reduced once a quench is detected and how quickly a quench must be detected, once the initiating spot quenches English  
MJ Physics 10 6 J English  
MLI Engineering Multi layer insulation English  
mm Physics 10−3 m English  
MO Engineering Main octupole corrector magnet English  
MoD Management Maitre d'Ouvrage Délégué French Contracting authority's representative
Molasse Geology Variable sedimentary deposits comprising sandstones, shales and conglomerates that form as terrestrial or shallow marine deposits in front of rising mountain chains. It is the typical soil type found in the Franco-Geneva basin English fr: molasse
MolfFlow + Engineering Software developed at CERN to calculate the pressure in an arbitrarily complex geometry when ultra-high vacuum condition is met English  
MOSFET Engineering Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor English  
MoU Organisation Memorandum of understanding English  
MP Physics Medium pressure, around 20 bar English n/a
MPGD Engineering Micro Pattern Gas Detector English  
MQ Engineering Main quadrupole English  
MQSA Engineering Main quadrupole dispersion suppressor magnet English  
MQS Engineering Main quadrupole skew magnet English  
MQT Engineering Main quadrupole tuning magnet English  
MQTL Engineering Main quadrupole trim magnet English  
MRI Engineering Magnetic resonance imaging English  
MRN Engineering Metrologial reference network English  
MS Engineering Main sextupole English  
MTE Engineering Multi turn extraction English  
MTTF Engineering Mean time to failure English  
MTTR Engineering Mean time to repair English  
MVDC Engineering Medium voltage direct current power distribution English  
MW Engineering 10 6 Watt English  

N

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
N Physics The newton (symbol: N) is the SI unit of force. A newton is how much force is required to make a mass of one kilogram accelerate at a rate of one metre per second squared English n/a
NASA Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration English n/a
Nb Physics Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41. It is a soft, grey, crystalline, ductile transition metal, often found in the minerals pyrochlore and columbite, hence the former name “columbium”. Niobium is used in various superconducting materials English n/a
Nb3Sn Physics An intermetallic compound of niobium (Nb) and tin (Sn) with the A15 structure, and a type II LTS with with Tc = 18.3 K and Hc2 = 25 T English n/a
NbTi Physics Niobium-titanium is an alloy of niobium (Nb) and titanium (Ti) and a type II LTS with Tc = 9.5 K. Nb–Ti wires, containing Nb–Ti filaments in an aluminium or copper matrix, are produced industrially and are used in the majority of super-conducting magnets English n/a
NEG Physics Non-Evaporable Getter materials are mostly porous alloys or powder mixtures of Al, Zr, Ti, V and iron (Fe). They help to establish and maintain vacuums by soaking up or bonding to gas molecules that remain within a partial vacuum English n/a
Nelium Physics A light gas mixture made of neon and helium English n/a
NEXTorr Physics A patented flanged vacuum pumping solution, combining NEG and ion pumping technologies by the saes group, Milan, Italy English  
NIE Environment The Notice d’Impact sur l’Environnement is an assembly of the results of environmental impact assessments for large projects in Switzerland. French en: environmental impact assessments
NMR Physics Nuclear magnetic resonance English  
NN Physics Neural network English  
NPV Procurement Net Present Value is a measurement of profit calculated by subtracting the present values (PV) of cash outflows (including initial cost) from the present values of cash inflows over a period of time. It is determined by calculating the costs (negative cash flows) and benefits (positive cash flows) for each period of an investment. After the cash flow for each period is calculated, the PV of each one is obtained by discounting its future value at a periodic rate of return English  
NTU Physics The Number of Transfer Units is defined as a ratio of the overall thermal conductance to the smaller heat capacity rate. It may also be interpreted as the relative magnitude of the heat transfer rate compared to the rate of enthalpy change of the smaller heat capacity rate fluid English  
NuPECC Organisation Nuclear physics European Collaboration Committee English n/a

O

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
O Mathematics Big O notation is a mathematical notation that describes the limiting behavior of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity English  
OAP Host states Orientations d'Aménagement et de Programmation French Planning and Development Guidelines
Obat Environment Ordonnance sur la Protection des sites de reproduction de Batraciens d'importance nationale French Ordinance on the protection of amphibian breeding sites of national importance
OBS Project management Organisation breakdown structure English fr: structure organisationelle du projet
OCEV Host states Office cantonal de l'environnement French en.: cantonal office for environment
OCT Host states Office Cantonal des Transports French en.: cantonal office for transport
ODH Physics Oxygen deficiency hazard English fr: danger de déficience en oxygène
OEIE Host state The ordonnance relative à l'étude de l’impact sur l’environnement is the Swiss environmental impact assessment regulation English  
OFHC Physics Oxygen-free copper (OFC) or oxygen-free high thermal conductivity (OFHC) copper is a group of wrought high conductivity copper alloys that have been electrolytically refined to reduce the level of oxygen to 0.001% or below English  
Ohm Engineering The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance. English n/a
OPEX Procurement An operating expense, operating expenditure, operational expense, operational expenditure or opex is an ongoing cost for running a product, business, or system English  
Optics Physics An optical configuration refers to a powering scheme of the magnets. There can be several different optics for a single lattice configuration. Different optics exist for instance, for injection and for luminosity operation corresponding to different β ∗ values in the experiment insertions English  
Oracle ICT A multi-model database management system produced by Oracle Corporation. English n/a
ORC Physics The Organic Rankine Cycle is named for its use of an organic, high molecular mass fluid with a liquid-vapor phase change, or boiling point, occurring at a lower temperature than the water-steam phase change. The fluid allows Rankine cycle heat recovery from lower temperature sources. The low-temperature heat is converted into useful work, that can itself be converted into electricity English  
OROEM Environment Ordonnance sur les réserves d'oiseaux d'eau et migrateur French Ordinance on the reserves of water birds and migratory birds
OSI Engineering The open systems interconnection model is a conceptual model that characterises and standardises the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology English  
OSI Model Engineering The open systems interconnection model is a conceptual and logical layout that defines network communication used by systems open to interconnection and communication with other system English  
Overburden Physics Material (rock, soil) that lies above an underground structure, e.g. a tunnel or cavern English  

P

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
Pa Physics The pascal is the SI derived unit of pressure. A common multiple unit of the pascal us the hectopascal (1 hPa = 100 Pa) which is equal to one millibar English  
PADD Environment Projet d'Aménagement et de Développement Durable, determines main land development guidelines French Eng: Sustainable planning and development project
Pandora PFA Engineering The pandora particle flow algorithm is an event reconstruction software developed for future linear collider studies ILC and CLIC English  
Pb Physics Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82 English fr: plomb
PBR Engineering The pre booster ring is an injector to the booster top-up ring (BR), which continuously provides the particle collider with particles at collision energy English n/a
PBS Procurement Product breakdown structure English fr: structure de décomposition du produit
PCB Engineering Printed circuit board English fr: circuit imprimé ou carte électronique
PCO Engineering Power COnverter English fr: convertisseur de puissance
PDCA Management Plan, Do, Check, Act. English fr.: Planifier, Développer, Contrôler, Ajuster
PDCn Host State Plan Directeur Cantonal , Main tool in cantonal policy for urban planning French n/a
PDCom Host State Plan Directeur Communal , Municipal master plan, sets the future guidelines for the development of a municipality over 10 to 15 years. French n/a
PDF Physics The parton name was proposed by Richard Feynman in 1969 as a generic description for any particle constituent within the proton, neutron and other hadrons. These particles are referred today as quarks and gluons. A parton distribution function is defined as the probability density for finding a particle with a certain longitudinal momentum fraction at a certain resolution scale English  
PED Organisation Physics, Experiments and Detectors, a pillar in the FCC feasibility study organisation breakdown structure. English n/a
PEDD Physics Peak energy deposition density English  
PEP-II Engineering The PEP-II facility consists of two independent storage rings, one located atop the other in the at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The high-energy ring, which stores a 9 GeV electron beam, was an upgrade of the existing Positron-Electron Project (PEP) collider; it reused all of the PEP magnets and incorporated a state-of-the-art copper vacuum chamber and a new radio-frequency system capable of supporting a stored beam of high current. The low-energy ring, which stores 3.1 GeV positrons, was newly constructed. Injection is achieved by extracting electrons and positrons at collision energies from the SLC and transporting them each in a dedicated bypass line. The low-emittance Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) beams are used for the injection process. The collider was completed in July 1998 English  
PERLE Physics Powerful Energy Recovery Linac for Experiments, an envisaged test facility for an energy recovery linac (ERL) at Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire (LAL) of CNRS in Orsay in France English  
PERT Project management Program evaluation and review technique English  
PFL Physics Pulse forming line English  
PFN Physics Pulse forming network English  
pH Physics A logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration, measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ion English  
Phase Space Physics A six-dimensional space consisting of a particle’s position (x, y, z) and divergence (x0 , y0 , z0 ). Phase space is represented in two dimensions by plotting position on the horizontal axis and the corresponding divergence on the vertical axis English  
PHY Engineering In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first and lowest layer. This layer may be implemented by a dedicated PHY chip. The physical layer consists of the electronic circuit transmission technologies of a network English n/a
Pile-up Physics The situation where a particle detector is affected by several events at the same time English  
PIT Physics The powder-in-tube process is often used for making electrical conductors from brittle superconducting materials such as niobium-tin or magnesium diboride and ceramic cuprate superconductors such as BSCCO English n/a
PLC Engineering Programmable logic controller English n/a
PLU Host States Plan Local d'Urbanisme French Local Urban Plan
PLUi Host States Plan Local d'Urbanisme Intercommunal French Inter-commune local urban plan
PMNS Physics The Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix, Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix (MNS matrix), lepton mixing matrix, or neutrino mixing matrix is a unitary mixing matrix which contains information on the mismatch of quantum states of neutrinos when they propagate freely and when they take part in the weak interactions. It is a model of neutrino oscillation. This matrix was introduced in 1962 by Ziro Maki, Masami Nakagawa and Shoichi Sakata, to explain the neutrino oscillations predicted by Bruno Pontecorvo English n/a
PMT Physics Photomultiplier tube English  
PN Environment Parc national French National Park
PNA Environment Plans Nationaux d'Action French National Plans of Actions
pNGB Physics Pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson English  
PoT Physics Protons on target English  
PPLP Engineering Parabolic parabolic linear parabolic English  
ppm Physics Parts per million (10−6 ) English n/a
PPRN Environment Plan de Prévention des Risques Naturels French Natural hazard prevention plan
PS Physics The proton synchrotron is a particle accelerator at CERN. It was CERN’s first synchrotron, beginning operation in 1959. It has since served as a pre-accelerator for the ISR (intersecting storage rings) and the SPS (super proton synchrotron), and is currently part of the LHC (large hadron collider) accelerator complex. In addition to protons, PS has accelerated alpha particles, oxygen and sulphur nuclei, electrons, positrons and antiprotons. English  
PSB Physics The proton synchrotron booster at CERN is an accelerator made up of four superimposed synchrotron rings that receive beams of protons from the linear accelerator Linac 2 or 4 at 50 MeV and accelerate them to 1.4 GeV for injection into the PS (proton synchrotron) English n/a
PSD Physics Photon stimulation desorption is a phenomenon whereby a substance is released from or through a surface English  
PSO Engineering In computational science, particle swarm optimisation is a computational method that optimises a problem by iteratively trying to improve a candidate solution with regard to a given measure of quality. It solves a problem by having a population of candidate solutions, here dubbed particles, and moving these particles around in the search-space according to simple mathematical formulae over the particle’s position and velocity. Each particle’s movement is influenced by its local best known position, but is also guided toward the best known positions in the search-space, which are updated as better positions are found by other particles. This is expected to move the swarm toward the best solutions English  
PU   Pile-up English  
PV Engineering Photovoltaics English  
PVSS Engineering Prozessvisualisierungs- und steuerungssoftware. A SCADA product from SIEMENS company ETM professional control now called WinCC OA German n/a
Px Engineering One of the 12 FCC access points. x can be one of A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, e.g. PA is the access point A close to the CERN Meyrin site English n/a
PyHEADTAIL Engineering A macroparticle tracking software designed specifically to simulate collective effects in circular accelerators English n/a
Pythia Engineering A Monte Carlo event generator software English n/a

Q

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
Q Physics The quality factor or Q factor is a dimensionless parameter that describes how underdamped an oscillator or resonator is, and characterises a resonator’s band-width relative to its centre frequency. Higher Q indicates a lower rate of energy loss relative to the stored energy of the resonator. For an RF cavity it characterises RF losses in the cavity: an RF cavity having a higher Q factor is a more efficient user of RF power English n/a
QC1 Physics First final focus quadrupole next to the IP English n/a
QC2 Physics Second final focus quadrupole, behind QC1 English n/a
QCD Physics In theoretical physics, Quantum ChromoDynamics is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion English  
QD Physics Defocusing quadrupole English  
QED Physics In particle physics, Quantum ElectroDynamics is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics English
QF Physics Focusing Quadrupole English  
QFT Physics Quantum Field Theory English  
QGP Physics Quark Gluon Plasma English  
QPS Physics Quench protection system English  
QPU Physics Quench processing unit English  
QRL Physics Cryogenic distribution line English  
QS Physics Quench instrumentation units in the tunnel English  
Quench Physics The change of state in a material from superconducting to resistive. If uncontrolled, this process damages equipment due to thermal stress induced by the extremely high-currents passing through the material  

R

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
R&D   Research and development refers to activities to develop new services and products, or to improve existing services and products. Research and development constitutes the first stage of development of a potential new service or the production process English  
R2E Physics Radiation to electronics English  
rad Physics The radian (SI symbol rad) is the SI unit for measuring angles. The length of an arc of a unit circle is numerically equal to the measurement in radians of the angle that it subtends; 360◦ correspond to 2π rad English  
RAMS Engineering Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety. Four non-functional key characteristics that determine the performance and total cost of technical systems English  
RBD Environment Réserve Biologique Dirigée French eng: Directed Biological Reserve
RBI Environment Réserve Biologique Intégrale French eng: Integral Biological Reserve
RD52 Organisation A research and development project at CERN, carried out by an international collaboration, to develop a detector technology for a future electron-positron particle collider using the simultaneous measurement of scintillation light and Cerenkov light generated in the shower development process English n/a
RDBMS ICT Relational Database Management System English fr.: Base de données relationnelle
RDC Engineering Radiation Dependent Capacitor English  
RDP Physics Resonant depolarisation English  
RDR Physics Radiation dependent resistor English  
ReBCO Physics Rare-earth barium copper oxide is a family of chemical compounds known for exhibiting high temperature superconductivity English  
Release order Procurement An individual order for work issued that is a binding contractual instrument and will reference and incorporate the terms and conditions of a blanked contract or framework agreement and specify the scope of work, delivery schedule, fixed or not-to-exceed price. English fr.: commande
RF Physics Radiofrequency English fr: fréquence radio
RF cavity Physics An electromagnetically resonant cavity used to convey energy (accelerate) to charged particles as they pass through by virtue of the electric field gradient across the cavity gap(s). Radio Frequency is a rate of oscillation in the range of around 3 kHz–300 GHz English  
RFN Host State Réseau Ferré National French en: French National Railway
RH Physics Relative Humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on temperature and the pressure of the system of interest. The same amount of water vapor results in higher relative humidity in cool air than warm air English  
RHA Physics Radiation Hardness Assurance English  
RI Organisation A Research Infrastructure is a facility, a set of resources and services that are used by research communities to conduct research and foster innovation in their fields. This includes major scientific equipment or sets of instruments, knowledge-based resources such as collections, archives and scientific data, e-infrastructures, such as data and computing systems and communication networks and any other tools that are essential to achieve excellence in research and innovation English fr.: Infrastructure de recherche
RMC Physics Racetrack model coil English  
RMM Physics Racetrack model magnet English  
RMS Mathematics The root mean square is square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of a set of numbers English  
RNN Environment Réserve Naturelle Nationale French eng: National Natural Reserve
RNR Environment Réserve Naturelle Régionale French eng: Regional Natural Reserve
RO Procurement Release Orders English  
Roadheader Engineering Excavation equipment consisting of a boom mounted cutting head with a hydraulic mechanism English  
Rockbreaker Engineering A hydraulically powered tool used to break up rock during the excavation process English  
RoHS Law The restriction of hazardous substances directive 2002/95/EC, (RoHS 1), short for directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, was adopted in February 2003 by the European Union English  
ROOT Engineering ROOT is a modular scientific software toolkit. It provides functionalities needed to deal with big data processing, statistical analysis, visualisation and storage ENglish  
ROXIE Engineering Software developed at CERN for the electromagnetic simulation and optimisation of accelerator magnets English  
RPC Engineering Resistive plate chamber English  
RRP Engineering The Restacked-rod Restack Process is a manufacturing process for Nb3Sn wires developed by the OST company (Oxford instruments technologies), which has been subsequently acquired by BEST Inc. (Bruker Energy and Supercon. Technologies) English  
RRR Physics The Residual Resistivity Ratio is defined as the ratio of the electrical resistivity of a material at room temperature and at a chosen cryogenic temperature. For superconducting materials, a cryogenic temperature above Tc must be chosen. RRR serves as a measure of the purity and overall quality of a sample: as electrical resistivity usually increases as defect prevalence increases, a large RRR is associated with a pure sample English  
RTE Organisation Réseau de Transport d’Electricité is the French electricity transmission system operator. It is responsible for the operation, maintenance and development of the French high-voltage transmission system. French en: electricity transport network
RW Physics The resistive wall impedance is one of the main sources for beam instabilities in synchrotrons and storage rings English  

S

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
S Physics The siemens (symbol: S) is the derived unit of electric conductance, electric susceptance and electric admittance in the International System of Units (SI). Conductance, susceptance, and admittance are the reciprocals of resistance, reactance, and impedance respectively; hence one siemens is redundantly equal to the reciprocal of one ohm, and is also referred to as the mho English  
√s Physics The total centre of mass energy of the colliding particles English n/a
S band Physics The S band is a designation by the IEEE (institute of electrical and electronics engineers) for a part of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum covering frequencies from 2 to 4 gigahertz English n/a
S275JR   A structural steel grade according to EN 10025: part 2: 2004 English n/a
SAD Engineering Strategic Accelerator Design is a software tool for particle accelerator design developed at KEK since 1986 English  
SC coating Engineering A very thin layer of superconducting material on normal-conducting material (e.g. copper). Used for various purposes such as quench avoidance of a neighbouring superconductor, reduction of production costs due to use of cheaper support material and impedance reduction English  
SCADA Engineering Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition English  
SCoT Environment Schéma de cohérence territoriale Conception and implementation tool for strategic intercommunal planification French Territorial coherence scheme
SCP Organisation The 'Structure de Concertation Permanente' federates representatives of CERN, the Swiss federal and cantonal governments as well as the Swiss permanent mission at the international organisations in order to work in common on adequate administrative frameworks for CERN’s operation and future developments on Swiss territory French en: Permanent concertation structure
scSPS Physics The superconducting SPS is a superconducting synchrotron, replacing the current SPS accelerator at CERN English  
SDA Host states The “surfaces d’assolement” are land plots in Switzerland, which are reserved for potential agricultural purposes in the event of crisis. They are not constructible French en: crop rotation areas
SEE Physics Single Event effect is a general class of radiation effects in electronic devices.There are two types of effects: those which cause permanent damage to the equipment’s functionality and those, which cause a transient fault. English  
Seismic survey Engineering Seismic reflection is a method of geophysical exploration that uses the principles of seismology to estimate the properties of the Earth's subsurface from reflected seismic waves. English fr.: Imagerie sismique
SEM Engineering A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons English  
SESAME Organisation The Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East is a third-generation synchrotron light source. SESAME is located in Allan, Jordan (30 km from Amman and 30 km from the King Hussein/Allenby Bridge crossing of the Jordan River) English  
SEU Physics A Single Event Upset is a change of state caused by one single ionising particle (ions, electrons, photons) striking a sensitive node in a micro-electronic device, such as in a microprocessor, semiconductor memory, or power transistor. It is not considered to permanently damage the equipment’s functionality. It is an example of a general class of radiation effects in electronic devices called single event effects (SEE) English  
SEY Physics Secondary Electron Yield English  
SFOE Host states The Swiss Federal Office of Energy English fr: Office fédéral de l'énergie
SFOPT Physics Strongly First Order Phase Transition English  
SGAR Host states The Secretariat Général de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes assists the Préfet of the région in the implementation of the government’s policies in the region French n/a
Shotcrete Physics A sprayed concrete lining that is projected at high velocity via a hose onto a surface English  
SI Physics The international system of units (SI, abbreviated from the French système international (d’unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units that are ampere, kelvin, second, metre, kilogram, candela, mole, and a set of twenty prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units. The system also specifies names for 22 derived units, such as lumen and watt, for other common physical quantities French en: international system of units
SiC Physics Silicon carbide (SiC) devices belong to the so-called wide band gap semiconductor group. They offer a number of attractive characteristics for high voltage power semiconductors when compared to commonly used silicon (Si). In particular, the much higher breakdown field strength and thermal conductivity of SiC allow devices to be created which by far outperform the corresponding Si ones. This way previously unattainable efficiency levels can be achieved English  
SiD Engineering The silicon detector is a conceptual design for an experiment detector at the ILC English  
SiPM Physics Silicon photomultiplier English  
SIRIUS Physics Sirius is a synchrotron light source facility based on a 4th generation low emittance storage ring that is under construction in Campinas, Brazil English  
SITROS Physics A tracking program developed at DESY in 1983 for the simulation of polarising and depolarising effects in electron-positron storage rings English  
Sixtrack Physics A single particle 6D symplectic tracking code optimised for long term tracking in high energy particle accelerators English  
SLC Physics Stanford Linear Collider English  
Slurry shield TBM Engineering A TBM fitted with a full face cutterhead which provides face support by pressurizing boring fluid inside the cutterhead chamber. These machines are most suited for tunnels through unstable material subjected to high groundwater pressure or water inflow that must be stopped by supporting the face with a boring fluid subjected to pressure English  
SM Engineering Standard Model English fr: modèle standard
SMC Engineering Short model coil English  
sMDT Engineering Small diameter muon drift tube English  
SME Economy Small and medium-sized enterprises English fr: petites et moyennes entreprises
SMEFT Physics The Standard Model effective field theory is a model independent framework for parameterising deviations from the Standard Model in the absence of light states English  
SMS Engineering A Safety Management System integrates autonomously working safety-related subsystems for higher-level operation, such as intrusion alarms, entrance and access control systems, fire and smoke detection, communication with public emergency services, public address and evacuation systems and many more English  
SNCFR Host state SNCF Réseau French  
SOW Project management Statement of Work English fr: énoncé des travaux
SPN Engineering Support Pre-alignment Network English  
SPS Physics The super proton synchrotron is a particle accelerator at CERN. It is housed in a circular tunnel, 6.9 km in circumference and delivers beams to fixed target experiments and the LHC English  
SPT Engineering The standard penetration test is an in-situ dynamic penetration test designed to provide information on the geotechnical engineering properties of soil. The test procedure is described in ISO 22476-3, ASTM D1586 and Australian Standards AS 1289.6.3.1 English  
SR Physics Synchrotron radiation English  
SRADDET Host state Schéma Régional d'Aménagement, de Développement Durable et d'Egalité des Territoires French eng: Regional planning, sustainable development and territorial equality
SRCE Host state Schéma Régional de Cohérence Ecologique French eng: Regional ecological coherence scheme
SRF Physics Superconducting RadioFrequency English  
SSM Engineering Sequential Standard Model English  
SSS Engineering Short straight section English  
Standard Model Physics The Standard Model explains how the basic building blocks of matter interact, governed by four fundamental forces English  
STATCOM Engineering Static Synchronous Compensator English  
STFC Organisation Science and Technology Facilities Council in the UK Engilsh  
Storz Engineering Storz is a type of hose coupling invented by Carl August Guido Storz in 1882 and patented in Switzerland in 1890, and patented in the U.S. in 1893 that connects using interlocking hooks and flanges. It is widely used on fire hoses in firefighting applications English n/a
Strand Engineering A superconducting strand is a composite wire containing several thousand superconducting filaments (e.g. Nb3Sn) dispersed in a matrix with suitably small electrical resistivity properties (e.g. copper) English  
Strong force Physics One of four known fundamental forces (the others are the weak force, electromagnetism and gravity). The strong force is felt only by quarks and gluons, and is responsible for binding quarks together to make hadrons. For example, two up quarks and a down quark are bound together to make a proton. The strong interaction is also responsible for holding protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei English fr: force nucléaire forte
Superconducting cable Engineering Superconducting cables are formed from several superconducting strands in parallel, geometrically arranged in the cabling process to achieve well-controlled cable geometry and dimensions, while limiting the strand deformation in the process. Cabling several strands in parallel results in an increase of the current carrying capability and a decrease of the inductance of the magnet, easing protection English  
Superconductivity Physics A property of some materials, usually at very low temperatures that allows them to carry electricity without resistance English  
Superferric magnet Physics An iron-dominated magnet based on a magnetic steel structure with a minimal amount of superconductor. The structure is the same as a normal conducting magnet, but the coil is built from superconducting material. The yole is cooled to cryogenic temperature English  
SuperKEKB Physics SuperKEKB is a particle accelerator located at KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation) in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. SuperKEKB will collide electrons at 7 GeV with positrons at 4 GeV. The accelerator is an upgrade of KEKB, providing approximately 40 times higher luminosity, due mostly to superconducting quadrupole focusing magnets English n/a
SUSY Physics Supersymmetry English  
SWOT Project management Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
Synchrotron Physics A circular machine that accelerates subatomic particles by the repeated action of electric forces generated by RF fields at each revolution. The particles are maintained on constant circular orbits by synchronously increasing the magnetic fields English n/a
Synchrotron Radiation Physics Electromagnetic radiation generated by acceleration of relativistic charged particles in a magnetic or electric field. Synchrotron radiation is the major mechanism of energy loss in synchrotron accelerators and contributes to electron-cloud build-up English  
SynRad + Engineering A modified MolFlow + software developed at CERN to trace photons in order to calculate flux and power distribution caused by synchrotron radiation on a surface English n/a

T

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
t Physics The “metric ton” is a unit of measure. It corresponds to 1000 kg in this document English  
Tc Physics The critical temperature of a superconducting material, above which material enters the normal state and does not show superconducting behaviour English  
Tantalum Physics Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73. It is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion- resistant. It is part of the refractory metals group, which are widely used as minor components in alloys. The chemical inertness of tantalum makes it a valuable substance for laboratory equipment and a substitute for platinum English  
TBA Engineering Triple bend achromat English  
TBM Engineering A Tunnel Boring Machine is a machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata. They can bore through anything from hard rock to sand. Tunnel diameters can range from one metre to more than 17 m to date English fr.: tunnelier
TCLA Physics Active Tungsten Absorber English  
TCLD Engineering Dispersion suppression collimator English  
TCO Procurement Total cost of ownership English  
TCP Engineering Primary collimator English  

U

V

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
V Physics The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force English  
VA Physics A volt-ampere is the unit used for the apparent power in an electrical circuit, equal to the product of root-mean-square (RMS) voltage and RMS current. In direct current (DC) circuits, this product is equal to the real power (active power) in watts. Volt-amperes are useful only in the context of alternating current (AC) circuits English  
Vacuum Physics Pressures much below atmospheric pressure English fr: vide
Variant Procurement A variant of a product has a specific set of characteristics that distinguish it from other products in the same product line. All variants are derived from a common base and share common design features. The development of different variants is managed by distinct processes and different variants co-exist at the same time English  
VBF Physics Vector Boson Fusion English  
Version Procurement A version of a product represents that same product at a different time. It may or may not have undergone some change (revision) English  
VFET Physics Vacuum field-effect transistor English  
VLP Physics Very low pressure English  
VSM Engineering An established compact shaft sinking technology for all ground conditions for soft and stable soils, originally developed by Herrenknecht AG English  
VXD Engineering CLD vertex detector English  

W

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
W (particle) Physics The W and Z bosons are together known as the weak or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. They mediate the weak interaction. The W bosons have either a positive or negative electric charge of 1 elementary charge and are each other’s antiparticles. The particles have a spin of 1 English  
W (Watt) Physics The watt (symbol W) is a unit of power. In the international system of units (SI) it is defined as a derived unit of 1 joule per second, and is used to quantify the rate of energy transfer English  
WBS Project management Work breakdown structure English  
WCS Engineering Warm compressor station English  
Weak force Physics A force carried by heavy particles known as the W and Z bosons. The most common manifestation of this force is beta decay, in which a neutron in a nucleus is transformed into a proton, by emitting an electron and a neutrino. Weak neutral current is a very weak interaction mediated by the Z boson that is independent of the electric charge of a particle. Particles can exchange energy through this mechanism, but other characteristics of the particles remain unchanged English fr: force faible
Willingness to pay Procurement An indicator of how much a person values a product or device, measured by the maximum amount she or he would pay to acquire one English fr: disposition à payer
WIMP Physics Weakly Interacting Massive Particles are hypothetical particles that are thought to constitute dark matter English  
WinCC OA Engineering WinCC Open Architecture is a SCADA system for visualising and operating processes, production flows, machines and plants in all lines of business. It was formerly called PVSS. English  
WLS Physics Wave length shifting English  
WPS Engineering Wire positioning sensors English  

X

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
Xe Physics Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54 English  
XFEL Physics A free-electron laser generating high-intensity electromagnetic radiation by accelerating electrons to relativistic speeds and directing them through special magnetic structures English  
XRD Physics X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is a rapid analytical technique primarily used for phase identification of a crystalline material and can provide information on unit cell dimensions. The analysed material is finely ground, homogenised, and average bulk composition is determined English  

Y

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
YBCO Physics Yttrium barium copper oxide is a family of crystalline chemical compounds, displaying high-temperature superconductivity. YBCO is often categorised as a rare-earth barium copper oxide (REBCO) English  

Z

Term Domain Definition Language Translation
Z Physics The W and Z bosons are together known as the weak or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. They mediate the weak interaction. The Z boson is electrically neutral and is its own antiparticle. The particles has a spin of 1 English  
ZICO Environment Zone d'Importance pour la Conservation des Oiseaux French eng: Priority zone for bird preservation
ZNIEFF 1 Environment Zones naturelles d'intérêt écologique faunistique et floristique de type 1 French Eng: Natural zone of ecological interest, fauna and flora - type 1
ZNIEFF 2 Environment Zones naturelles d'intérêt écologique faunistique et floristique de type 2 French Eng: Natural zone of ecological interest, fauna and flora - type 2
Zones AU Host State Zones à urbaniser French Eng: Zones to be urbanized
ZPS Environment Zone de Protection Spéciale French Eng: Special protection area
ZrTiV Physics A zirconium-titanium-vanadium alloy that is used as a coating for a large surface getter pump English  
ZSC Environment Zone Spéciale de Conservation French Eng: Special Area of Conservation
-- JohannesGutleber - 2021-12-03
Edit | Attach | Watch | Print version | History: r43 | r41 < r40 < r39 < r38 | Backlinks | Raw View | Raw edit | More topic actions...
Topic revision: r39 - 2022-06-22 - SuzanneChibli
 
    • Cern Search Icon Cern Search
    • TWiki Search Icon TWiki Search
    • Google Search Icon Google Search

    FCC All webs login

  • Edit
  • Attach
This site is powered by the TWiki collaboration platform Powered by PerlCopyright &© 2008-2022 by the contributing authors. All material on this collaboration platform is the property of the contributing authors.
or Ideas, requests, problems regarding TWiki? use Discourse or Send feedback