DaVinci Tutorial 4


The purpose of this exercise is to allow you to write a set of complete though simple selection algorithms for a typical decay: Bs→J/ψφ. We will use Configurables and the Particle Selection Framework to write re-usable J/ψ, φ and Bs Selections and obtain a algorithm sequence that can be passed on to DaVinci to run the selection.


This tutorial corresponds to the slides shown at the 2009 January LHCb-UK tutorial here and the 2011 Course here.

Warning: This tutorial refers to DaVinci version v30r2 or later.


This tutorial requires you to have done DaVinciTutorial0, DaVinciTutorial0p5 and all steps leading up to that. At this stage you should have an options file and Ganga job working with DaVinci.

At this stage you will need to know quite a bit more about python, including what a python module is, how you create and import them, and the nature of the PYTHONPATH.

This tutorial assumes that you have run

SetupProject DaVinci --build-env
getpack Tutorial/Analysis
for your personal Davinci installation. Any reference to the folder solutions can be found in the Tutorial/Analysis folder

1 LoKi

Our CombineParticles framework uses the amazing flexibility of LoKi. If you want to know more you should follow the LoKiTutorial .

However, this is not a prerequisite.

1.1 LoKi cuts

We will use LoKiHybridFilters to apply cuts. They are python objects hiding some C++ code behind them. You can play with them in options as in python. Try for instance the following, outside ganga for the moment:
SetupProject DaVinci
python -i
from math import sqrt 
from LoKiPhys.decorators import *
from LoKiCore.functions import monitor
p = LHCb.Particle()
p.setParticleID( LHCb.ParticleID(11) )
m = p.momentum()
m.SetPx (   1000 )
m.SetPy (  -1000 )
m.SetPz (  10000 )
m.SetE  ( sqrt( m.P2() + 5000*5000 ) )
p.setMomentum ( m )
fun = PX+PY
print PX(p), PY(p) , fun(p)
fun2 = PX>750
print fun2(p)
fun3 = monitor(fun2)
print fun3(p)
from LoKiCore.doxygenurl import browse 

2 Particle Selection framework

We have a powerful python module-based selection framework. This is the recommended way of constructing particles. See, for example, the options files in $DAVINCIROOT/options for more examples.

Firstly we will use the GaudiAlgorithm CombineParticles to create our resonances, then we will use the framework to combine all these into a sequence. From Following DaVinciTutorial0 you will have a job which runs inside Ganga. You should copy that options file

We will be coding the φ, J/ψ and Bs selections as self-contained Selection configurables within python modules. This means that, besides using them for this example, we will be able to use them to build other particles, to make (Misro)DSTs, even to bolt them seamlessly into the stripping. For this we will use the Particle Selection "Framework". We will be writing python modules, so your solution should be put in python/DaVinci4/Bs2JpsiPhi.py. This will define a python module, which you will be able to import like this:

from DaVinci4 import Bs2JpsiPhi

2.1 Make a Bs2PsiPhi python module

We need to create a python module that will end up in the $PYTHONPATH. This package is set up such that anything in python/DaVinci4 gets put in an area that is on that path once the package is built.
  • Open empty file python/DaVinci4/Bs2JpsiPhi.py
  • Add some necessary modules
import GaudiKernel.SystemOfUnits as Units
from Gaudi.Configuration import *
  • Build the package and check the module is in the InstallArea (which is in the $PYTHONPATH)

In your ganga session


2.2 Make a loose J/ψ Selection

Add this into your python file

# make a Selection out of a data-on-demand location
from Configurables import CombineParticles
_jpsi2mumu = CombineParticles("Jpsi2MuMu")
# Define the Decay Descriptor 
_jpsi2mumu.DecayDescriptor = "J/psi(1S) -> mu+ mu-" # mandatory

2.3 CombineParticles

CombineParticles is a GaudiAlgorithm seemlessly integrating into LoKi, this algorithm creates a mother particle with the correct four-vector and endvertex to have decayed into the particles we saw in the detector.

Unfortunately we have a lot of 'background' events, particles from the primary vertex or from decays of other particles, or perhaps particles that are not really muons at all. Hence we 'cut' away at the background to see the signal.

  • There are three cuts applied in CombineParticles
    1. DaughtersCuts : On the incoming daughter particles. Note the double plural.
    2. CombinationCut : Once a combination has been made according to the decay descriptor but before the vertex fit. This cut is applied to the array of particles to be used in the vertex fit.
    3. MotherCut : On the outcoming Mother, after the vertex fit.
All the cuts that require the position of the vertex must be applied in MotherCut, while the others, like mass, can be applied earlier (saving CPU). Note that for long lived particles like Ks it pays off to apply a loose mass cut in CombinationCut and a harder in MotherCut. The reason is that the vertex fit does a propagation of the momenta through the detector. You thus get the momentum at the Ks vertex, while in CombinationCut it's just the sum of the momenta of the daughters at their first measurement.
  • The cuts that can be applied in the filters are the LoKiHybridFilters.
  • Let's ignore cuts on daughters for the time being.
  • We want a mass cut on the J/ψ candidates.
_jpsi2mumu.CombinationCut = "ADAMASS('J/psi(1S)')<30*MeV"
  • Note that here we use functors for an array of particles. Usually there's an "A" in the name to remind you about this. ADAMASS is the array version of ADMASS. See LoKiHybridFilters for a complete list.
  • Let's also cut on the vertex chi2. This happens after the vertex fit and is therefore a Mother cut.
_jpsi2mumu.MotherCut = "(VFASPF(VCHI2/VDOF)<10)"

2.4 Add into your selection

  • Now we make a Selection object for the Jpsi. It only needs the standard loose muons, so we pass it a list with _muons as only entry for RequiredSelections.
from PhysSelPython.Wrappers import Selection
from StandardParticles import StdLooseMuons
LooseJpsi2MuMu = Selection("SelLooseJpsi2MuMu", 
                              Algorithm = _jpsi2mumu, 
                              RequiredSelections = [StdLooseMuons])
Note that we do not need to specify any Inputs for the CombineParticles. The Selection takes care of setting it from the RequiredSelections. With this we are already at the same level as with our C++ code for the J/ψ! In fact, we are beyond that level, because now we can use the Jpsi2MuMu selection from python:
from DaVinci4.Bs2JpsiPhiEx4 import LooseJpsi2MuMu 

3 Creating the full sequence

3.1 Filter further to make a tighter J/ψ Selection

We can apply harder cuts using a FilterDesktop.
# make a FilterDesktop
from Configurables import FilterDesktop
_jpsifilter = FilterDesktop("_JpsiFilter",
                         Code = "(PT>1*GeV) & (P>3*GeV)")
#make a Selection out of it
Jpsi2MuMu = Selection("SelJpsi2MuMu",
                        Algorithm = _jpsifilter,
                        RequiredSelections = [LooseJpsi2MuMu])
This applies a momentum and transverse momentum cut on the J/ψ. Of course that could have been done directly in the CombineParticles above. Again, note that Jpsi2MuMu doesn't need to explicitly know its Inputs. It only needs access to LooseJpsi2MuMu, which could've even been in a different module in a different package.
  • Note that we are not doing logical operations but binary additions. Hence use & and |, not &&, ||, and, or.

3.2 Make the φ(1020) Selection

Now make another Selection called Phi2KK, using a CombineParticles instance for "phi(1020) -> K+ K-". Apply a 50 MeV mass cut and a vertex chi2 less than 100. The input should come from StdLooseKaons which you need to pass to Phi2KK as RequiredSelections.

3.3 Make the Bs Selection

The last step is the Bs using the filtered J/ψ and the φ as input. A good cut for a B is to require pointing to the PV. This needs the vertex and thus is a MotherCut cut. Let's also cut on the vertex chi2. We also want a mass cut, but let's make it wide so we get an idea of our background level. ± 500 MeV is typical in the HLT and stripping, but here let's make it 2 GeV.
_bs2jpsiphi = CombineParticles("Bs2JpsiPhi",
            DecayDescriptor = "B_s0 -> phi(1020) J/psi(1S)",
            CombinationCut = "ADAMASS('B_s0')<2*GeV",
            MotherCut = "(VFASPF(VCHI2/VDOF)<10) & (BPVIPCHI2()<100)" )
# feel free to add more cuts
_bs2jpsiPhi. ....
# Now let's add some plots
from Configurables import LoKi__Hybrid__PlotTool as PlotTool
_bs2jpsiphi.HistoProduce = True
_bs2jpsiphi.addTool( PlotTool("DaughtersPlots") )
# Note that it's using the same functors as above. Hence the same syntax. 
_bs2jpsiphi.DaughtersPlots.Histos = { "P/1000"  : ('momentum',0,100) ,
                                     "PT/1000" : ('pt_%1%',0,5,500) ,
                                     "M"       : ('mass in MeV_%1%_%2%_%3%',0.8*Units.GeV,4*Units.GeV) }
_bs2jpsiphi.addTool( PlotTool("MotherPlots") )
_bs2jpsiphi.MotherPlots.Histos = { "P/1000"  : ('momentum',0,100) ,
                                 "PT/1000" : ('pt_%1%',0,5,500) ,
                                 "M"       : ('mass in MeV_%1%_%2%_%3%',4*Units.GeV,6*Units.GeV) }
# now make the Selection
Bs2JpsiPhi = Selection("SelBs2JpsiPhi", 
                    Algorithm = _bs2jpsiphi, 
                    RequiredSelections = [ Jpsi2MuMu, Phi2KK ])

Make sure the Selection definition comes after the complete definition of all algorithms that go inside.

3.4 Make a Bs → J/ψ(μμ)φ(KK) SelectionSequence

Now that we have the J/ψ, φ and Bs Selections (plus Selections for the data-on-demand particles) we can create a SelectionSequence for the Bs → J/ψ(μμ)φ(KK)selection. It is remarkable simple, since all the necessary information is contained in each Selection.
from PhysSelPython.Wrappers import SelectionSequence
SeqBs2JpsiPhi = SelectionSequence('SeqB2jJpsiPhi', TopSelection = Bs2JpsiPhi)

4 Run!

4.1 Build!

In your ganga session

4.2 Run

Add into your options file:

from DaVinci4.Bs2JpsiPhiEx4 import SeqBs2JpsiPhi as theSequence
MySelection = theSequence.sequence()
DaVinci().UserAlgorithms = [MySelection]

Then submit a new job in Ganga.


The solution is given in python/DaVinci4/solutions for the module. and solutions/DaVinci4 for the script to run the selection.

What next?

-- PatrickKoppenburg - 01 Oct 2007 -- PatrickKoppenburg - 13 Jun 2008 -- PatrickKoppenburg - 05 Jan 2009 -- JuanPalacios - 2009-10-02 -- PatrickSKoppenburg - 16-Oct-2012 -- PatrickSKoppenburg - 30-Sep-2013

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Topic revision: r43 - 2014-07-29 - NathanaelFarley
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