HowTo's , Tips , Hints etc.    

for Alexander Fedotov

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  alpine generates "Message number to jump to : 1;2c?"


With the following alpine settings (Setup > Config)

Display Character Set             = KOI8-R                                      
Keyboard Character Set            = KOI8-R                                      
Posting Character Set             = KOI8-R                                      
Unknown Character Set             = <No Value Set>                              
I experienced a problem when opening some mails. Namely, for those mails, when opened, alpine immediately generated a nasty message
"Message number to jump to : 1;2c?"
Then similar messages might appear many more times while scrolling through the mail (with arrow keys e.g.). The messages were constantly repeated for certain lines coming into display, while other lines were OK...

Changing the Display Character Set from KOI8-R to ISO-8859-1 removed the noise production, but lead to question marks displayed instead of russian symbols. So this was not a remedy...

The problem seems to have disappeared after having selected the setting

      [ ]  Prefer Plain Text                                                    
such that it looks like
      [X]  Prefer Plain Text                                                    

Warning: the problem still occurs while scrolling through the e-mail list in certain folders.

    origin of the problem

  • 29.03.13

  • an investigation shows that the input sequence 1;2c is generated for alpine (by whome? -- see next bullet) whenever a new character 0x9A (9A hexadecimal = 232 octal = 154 decimal) gets displayed (or redrawn) on the screen. If the 0x9A occurs n times on the displayed page, then the sequence 1;2c appears n times respectively. Trying to move inside the dispalyed page with the up/down arrows may also imply redrawing one or several 0x9A .

    The first input digit -- the 1 -- switches alpine into a "jump mode" where alpine expects the "Message number to jump to" to be entered.
    Thus, one can observe "commands" ranging from a short form
    Message number to jump to : 1;2c ,
    to longer ones (with extra question marks for some reason) like e.g.
    Message number to jump to : 1;2c?1;2c?1;2c?1;2c?1;2c?1;2c
    (and infinitely press Ctrl-C to cancel them).

  • The appearance of the 1;2c in response to the 0x9A is
    a property of the xterm
    terminal emulator.
    The 0x9A byte represents there one of the so called C1 (8-Bit) Control Characters which is a family of Xterm Control Sequences.
    The 0x9A is called "Return Terminal ID". The observed 1;2c must be an image of the ID of one of the xterm species (a VT one? -- e.g. the VT220 response to host meaning "I am a VT100 terminal with AVO" looks like " ESC [ ? 1; 2 c " ).
    • unfortunately, the problem persists with the terminal emulated by SSH Secure Shell Client program under Windows.
    • Running alpine inside the konsole terminal application (linux) removes the problem! .

  • The KOI8-R alpine setting for the Display Character Set
    Display Character Set  = KOI8-R
    is a prerequisite of the troubles.
    Unsetting this attribute, thus going to the default ISO-8859-1 , removes the problem but, unfortunately, you also stop seeing real russian letters if any.
    • in the alpine output, the symbol 0x9A which is called NBSP (non-breakable space) in the koi8-r table gets replaced by the 0xA0 which is the NBSP of the ISO-8859-1 table ,
      and the 0xA0 symbol does not cause any trouble.

  • What is the source of the appearance of this 0x9A symbol? Why does it often appear even in purely english emails?
    The answer is (this seems to be a very common case):
    • if alpine takes an HTML version of the email as a base (the version may either be the only one or exist along with a plain-text version) and transforms into a plain text to be visualised
    • and if it encounters the HTML instruction &‍nbsp;
    • then the &‍nbsp; is translated into the nbsp character of the current Display Character Set ( 0x9A in case of KOI8-R )
      • This explains why selecting the alpine option Prefer Plain Text helps sometimes: this may allow one to avoid an HTML→text decoding by alpine, when there are both HTML and plain-text versions in the email.

  alpine does not clear screen?


A command to refresh or redraw screen seems to be missing...

The following procedure is suitable when alpine is run in an xterm window.

  1. Press C-middle_mouse and (still pressing)
    • select Do Full Reset if the VT Options menu has appeared,
    • or select hardreset if the VT Option (no app-defaults) menu has appeared,
  2. The result of 1. will be a white screen.
    In order to redraw the initial screen, one can, e.g.,
    • go to a help screen with the key `?'
    • and return back with the left-arrow key( `<' ) .

  CERN: Alpine configuration

  configuration file for -- an example,... plus other examples

Here is an example of alpine configuration for user fedotov at a Fedora 10 linux:

Usernames are identical for the client PC and the server.

This can be compared to

  • .pinerc used with pine 4.64 at desy (SLD4 linux),
  • .pinerc used with pine 4.44 at itep (Redhat 9 linux)
  • .pinerc used with alpine 2.00 at desy as of 05.09.15 (SLD5 (?) linux ( fs sys responds with 'i586_rhel50' 'i386_linux26' ))

    15.05.15: a change of configuration file for to satisfy the server requirement of secure connection

  • Since 14.05.2015 08:00 secure connections are only allowed by the itep mail server
  • Therefore, we made the following modifications to the alpine-2.00 configuration file ~/.pinerc at RH9 @ dom :
    [h1dom] ~ $ diff .pinerc.d150503.t1546 .pinerc
    < inbox-path={}inbox
    > inbox-path={}inbox
    <       "Personal (" {}inbox.[],
    <       "Shared (" {}shared.ITEP.[]
    >       "Personal (" {}inbox.[],
    >       "Shared (" {}shared.ITEP.[]
    To be noted:
    • tls -> ssl in the inbox-path definition
    • a triple indication of port 993 with ->

  forwarding an X-UNKNOWN-char-set mail (koi8-r in reality)

  • the situation:
    • there is a koi8-r email saved into an alpine folder via export -- it contains no info on the character set in use (koi8-r in reality)
    • if it is forwarded then
      • the char set remains undefined independently of post-char-settings (a bug?)
      • the text experiences a recoding to an awful unreadable encoding
  • a solution:
    • edit the folder with the saved mail (or export/save to a new folder and edit there):
      • add the line
        Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; format=flowed; charset=KOI8-R
        after e.g. the Subject:... line
    • then forward
  • NB: replying to the initial mail instead of forwarding is OK -- nothing bad happenning





j=0 ; j=`expr $j + 1`

if [ $i -lt 10 ]; then ...

  for loop


for i in $(seq 1 4); do  echo $i; done

for i in $(seq 1 $n); do  echo $i; done


  • An example of a bold purple/red prompt defined in .bashrc :
               export PS1="\[\033[1;35m\][\u] \w $\[\033[0m\] "


  Adobe Flash Player (not a browser -- a plugin)


    Chrome repeatedly asks for a password?


    Add-ons: Manual Installation

    Browsing H1 pages w/o pw (SL5 @ DESY)

    Clearing cache

  • Recipe for SL5 / Win 7 : here

    Crash under Win 7

  • 24.02.13
    Firefox crashes after too long "sleep" mode of Win 7, accompanied by numerous blue-screens crashes of Win 7?
    FF even can not start?
    • start Win in safe mode after a bluescreen crash
    • start FF there
    • (23.06.14) switch off the computer i.o. a reboot , then boot it: may help to get rid of bluescreen crashes?

    Downgrading FF

    Extensions / Add-Ons

      Some Useful Add-Ons

  • Classic Theme Restorer -- "Squared tabs, appmenu, add-on bar, small button view and many more 'old' features for Firefox 29+ (Windows / MacOSX / Linux)"
  • RightToClick -- "Stops javascript annoyances such as forbidden right click, forbidden text selection or disabled features like copy/save images from web-pages"
  • Scientific Calculator -- "A full-featured scientific calculator which can be placed in any Firefox tool-bar or the Australis PanelUI"
  • Date Picker / Calendar -- "Quick popup allowing you to view a calendar/pick a date"

      Unlocking sites (friGate)

  • a review of unlockers (ru)
  • friGate Add-on / extension
    • friGate 2.21 got disabled in FF 43.0.1 with the following message in the about:addons window:
      "friGate - unlock sites could not be verified for use in Firefox and has been disabled"
      sending for More Information to
      • A hint in the subsection "What can I do if Firefox disables an installed, unsigned add-on?" suggests to
        change the xpinstall.signatures.required preference to false in the about:config page
        • having done so and then restarting FF, enabled the friGate again

    Flash slowing down in Firefox

  • a solution from here :
    • Tools -> Options -> Advanced -> General -> Browsing -> Deselect "Use hardware acceleration when available"
      • trying this with the firefox 15.0.1 (Win 7) did not help

    google.xx instead of ?

  • with firefox 26 under Fedora 18 at Moscow computer, typing as the URL always lead to a redirection to
  • adding the /ncr "suffix" to the URL resolved this:
      is redirected to
    -- a tip from How to change from google.xx to

    HTML5 support

  • Note: The HTML5 was "finalized, and published, on 28 October 2014"

      YouTube: HTML5 player too slow / hanging -> the add-on "youtube flash video player" can be used

  • Problem:
    03.06.2016, Win7, current firefox version 46.0.1;
    Some YouTube videos almost can not be viewed due to extremly slow loading; this has been experienced since at least ~3 months;
    today's example of a slow video

  • Solution
    • The problematic video was tried in FF on Fedora 18 linux. No problem observed. But it was played there with Adobe Flash Player, while on Win7 the html5 player is used (this can be checked by a right mouse click on the video screen).
    • Assumption: the problem may be caused by the html5 player.
    • google search: firefox youtube turn off html5

    Install Mozilla Firefox 3.6 (3.6.13) on Fedora Linux

    keyboard shortcuts

    Links to local or network pages do not work?


This is a default mozilla behaviour (for security reasons) -- see

I encountered the problem with local pdf files referenced from a twiki server...

Solution 1

The solution was found at .

Here it is:

Firefox 1.5.x or newer

  • Search for the Firefox profile folder on your hard drive, e.g. (12345678 stands for eight random digits and letters):
    • Windows: C:\Documents and Settings\Username\Application Data\Mozilla\Firefox\Profiles12345678.default\
    • Linux: /home/username/.mozilla/firefox/12345678.default/
    • OS X: /Username/Library/Application Support/Firefox/Profiles/12345678.default/

  • In this folder create a text file with the name user.js . Write the following line into that text file:
    user_pref("capability.policy.default.checkloaduri.enabled", "allAccess");

  • Restart firefox

Solution 2

The solution was found 23.02.2012 at .
It was applied to Firefox 10 under Windows 7

  • Firefox 1.5, SeaMonkey 1.0 and newer
    • allow local links to work only for indicated sites
    • create file user.js in the
      C:\Users\UserName\AppData\Roaming\Mozilla\Firefox\Profiles\ProfileName.default directory
      ( UserName and ProfileName to be replaced by real names) of the following content:
      user_pref("capability.policy.policynames", "localfilelinks");
      user_pref("capability.policy.localfilelinks.sites", "");
      user_pref("capability.policy.localfilelinks.checkloaduri.enabled", "allAccess");
      In the second line, the string "" is an example of a site URL; it was set to in my case.
      Several sites can be given blank separated inside quotation marks, e.g., 2 sites:
      "" : Firefox Send service

    Tab bar: putting it back below the location bar

  • The tip is from How do I put tabs back on bottom like they used to be?

    1. In the Location bar, type about:config and press Enter.
      • The about:config "This might void your warranty!" warning page may appear. Click I'll be careful, I promise!, to continue to the about:config page.
    2. In the Search field box at the top, type browser.tabs.onTop.
    3. Double-click the browser.tabs.onTop preference to set its value to false.

    Tab set lost : restoring a recent state

  • How to restore tabs when firefox loses them for some reason, and, e.g., i.o. tabs from the previous session, a set of empty "new tabs" is displayed?
  • The recipe is based on
    "Is there a way to recover tabs that disappeared when closing Firefox and starting again? The second last configuration?"
    • When firefox session is closed, the prev.session tabs info is stored (Windows 7 platform!) in the file
      ( 2ni860jy.default folder name is an example, the real name will be a similar quasi-random string)
      • This file can be replaced if a more appropriate version is available
      • The .\sessionstore-backups subdirectory may contain older versions of session configuration, e.g. upgrade.js-<‍build_tag> which corresponds to the state at the moment of a firefox upgrade.
        • If the date/time of a file suits you,
          • (quit firefox, rename/remove/move-to-elsewhere sessionstore.js )
          • copy the selected file to the parent dir,
          • rename to sessionstore.js
          • start firefox and, hopefully, there you are.


  • Changing a file folder icon in the Bookmarks Toolbar : see "chosen solution" in
    • (AF: the recipe works in FF 63.0.3 @ Win 7, see (Win 7 @ dom3) C:\Users\fedotov\AppData\Roaming\Mozilla\Firefox\Profiles\2ni860jy.default\chrome\userChrome.css )

  • FF 69 : FF does not look for userChrome.css by default any longer: see
    One needs to tell it to look (the change will take effect after an FF restart) :
    • open about:config page
    • search for userprof
    • double click toolkit.legacyUserProfileCustomizations.stylesheets to switch it from false to true.
      • (AF: the recipe works in FF 70.0.1 @ Win 7 )

    Version 29 revolution (Apr/May 2014)

  • In the FF version 29, the user interface (UI) changed dramatically.
    In particular:
    • Tabs-on-bottom option disappeared, colours of tabs changed
    • Add-on bar disappeared

    YouTube: enable PASTE in comments

  • The PASTE in youtube comments does not work in FF 59 @ linux .
  • A solution from a google search:
    • open about:config -> search for dom.event
      -> dom.event.clipboardevents.enabled is true -> make it false by a double click on the line


  Tutorial by Juan Soulie

See AVFedotovHowToCppTutorialByJuanSoulie


  Main Commands

This is a summary from the Getting started section of the User Guide for CASTOR . See also man pages.

  • CASTOR_HOME environmental varibale: contains the user directory in castor (like e.g. /castor/
  • List files and directories
    • nsls [-l] [-R] <dir or file>
    • rfdir [-R]<dir or file>
      • -R option : recursively
  • Rename and/or Move (moving into a nonexisting directory not allowed!)
    • nsrename old_name new_name
    • rfrename old_name new_name
  • Remove
    • nsrm [-r] [-i] <dir or file>
    • rfrm [-r]  <dir or file>
      • -r option : recursively
      • -i option : ask for an acknowledgement before removing
  • Making new dir
    • nsmkdir [-p] new_dir
    • rfmkdir [-p] new_dir
      • -p option : creation of non-existing (parent) directories
  • Storing to castor (one file at a time!)
    • rfcp local_file castor_file
  • Retrieving from castor (one file at a time!)
    • rfcp castor_file local_file
    • rfcat castor_file -- retrieval to standard output
      • Ex.:
        rfcat $CASTOR_HOME/logfile > log
        rfcat $CASTOR_HOME/logfile | less
  • Pre-staging files (copying them from tapes to disc cache)
    • stager_get -M file1 [-M file2 [...]]
      -- stage files file1 (, file2, ...)
    • stager_get -f file_with_FileList
      -- stage files listed in the file_with_FileList (one line per file)
  • Querying the stager
    • stager_qry -M file1 [-M file2 [...]]
      -- query files file1 (, file2, ...)
    • stager_gry -f file_with_FileList
      -- query files listed in the file_with_FileList (one line per file)
    • stager_qry -M dir/
      query all files in the castor directory dir known to the stager
      • regular expressions supported (?)
      • Answers:
        • Error 2/No such file or directory... -- file not known to the stager
        • filename... STAGIN -- file being staged
        • filename... STAGED -- file has been staged
  • Removing from the stager
    • stager_rm -M file1 [-M file2 [...]]
      --removes file(s) from the CASTOR stager catalog.
      (includes stopping all running requests and marking all replicas of the file for garbage collection)
  • Quering the class of a file/dir
    • nsls --class file gives a class_id (a number) of the file
    • nslistclass --id class_id -- prints out properties of the class with id = class_id

  Reading as a PoolSource

Example 1:

A castor file from the local storage element

can be read in with:
process.source = cms.Source("PoolSource",
    fileNames = cms.untracked.vstring(
                  '/store/relval/CMSSW_3_6_1/RelValTTbar/GEN-SIM-RECO/START36_V7-v1/0020/782BDBBC-085D-DF11-98B4-003048678F1C.root'    )

This can be found out with the edmFileUtil utility (should be run from a shell with the cms environment set up):

[lxplus255]  $ edmFileUtil -d  /store/relval/CMSSW_3_6_1/RelValTTbar/GEN-SIM-RECO/START36_V7-v1/0020/782BDBBC-085D-DF11-98B4-003048678F1C.root

Example 2:

A castor file from the user area

can be read in with:
process.source = cms.Source("PoolSource",
                            fileNames = cms.untracked.vstring(

Example 3:

The rfio address for a file in castor /store/caf/user/ directory seems to be a special case.

The example is for the file

[lxplus255]  $ edmFileUtil -d  /store/caf/user/fedotov/test/RelValPhotonJets_Pt_10.root

Note: The rfdir command accepts both /castor/ and rfio://castorcms/?svcClass=cmscafuser&path=/castor/ arguments.


  Changing password

An lxplus news from 19-Nov-2010:

  • From Monday 22nd a new account management system will be in place replacing CRA.
    Manage all your CERN accounts, passwords and resources yourself through

A recipe from CERN Computer Security > (Password) Recommendations :
To change password for a CERN Account and also AFS/PLUS accounts

Another recipe from mails from "NICE Support":
> ...This password can be changed again at any time, on any computer with a Web Browser
> using the form at the address


  Russia in CERN

  Security Course

  • CERN Basic Computer Security Course as taken 07.01.12 : html , pdf


  Branch names PT_ML_IN_PN


Definition from the Note on branch names :

Branch names have a four-part form with the format: PT_ML_IN_PN

  1. PT is the product type; this is also called the "friendly class name".
  2. ML is the module label; this is the label of the module that created the product.
  3. IN is the instance name; this may be (and often is) a zero-length string.
  4. PN is the process name; this is the name of the process in which this object was created.

Most people will probably never see this or need to know this, but in some places the same branch name will occur with a period appended to the end. This is required for some purposes by ROOT. This period should not be used in "keep" or "drop" statements.

Description from WorkBook ( Identifying Data in the Event ):

Data within the Event are uniquely identified by four quantities:

C++ class type of the data
E.g., edm::PSimHitContainer or reco::TrackCollection.
module label
the label that was assigned to the module that created the data. E.g., "SimG4Objects" or "TrackProducer".
product instance label
the label assigned to object from within the module (defaults to an empty string). This is convenient if many of the same type of C++ objects are being put into the edm::Event from within a single module.
process name
the process name as set in the job that created the data

See also a more detailed description in SWGuide: Identifying data in an Event

  EOS -- a mass storage system

  • Storage tools cmsX , X = Stage, Ls, Rm, Rmdir, Pfm for EOS
  • some basic information: CAF-T2 -- CMS CAF (CERN Analysis Facility) -- Tier2 (T2_CH_CERN)
  • An alternative way to control the EOS storage is to invoke the EOS console via eos , see eos help for the list of commands;
    commands can be given w/o entering the console just from the unix command line: eos help is an example, more examples: eos ls , eos ls -l eos/cms/store/user
    As of 11.09.12, on lxplus , the eof is an alias to /afs/
    • eos quota lists (different) eos quotas
  • One more alternative: /usr/bin/xrd (there is man xrd, also xrd followed by help).
    • xrd eoscms connects to the cms eos storage
    • xrdcp ... copies local files < -- > eos files
  • A useful ATLAS help twiki page: ATLASStorageAtCERN
  • Oscar's notes on EOS storage by Oscar Gonzalez Lopez ( a local copy 12.09.12 )

  HCAL: ieta-to-eta map : function theHFEtaBounds[ieta] , ...


07.07.10 : See separate page AVFedotovHowToCmsJets

  Python Config Files

16.06.10 : See separate page AVFedotovHowToCmsConfigFiles

  SW / Computing news

28.05.11 : See separate page AVFedotovHowToCmsSwComputingNews


  Links (crab)

  black nodes at T2's


Andrey -> Stepan: I found that you should run your jobs in ITEP on all nodes except Your jobs are automatically submitted to this node, it's why they are aborted. Try to put this node in the black list (ce_black_list = and try to run them again.

  storing output on CASTOR


Andrey: if I try to retrieve the output using crab -getoutput , it works fine. But if I try to write output directly to castor I receive some strange error...

Olga: Did you set correct permissions for CASTOR output directory? You have to do (better to create a subdir):

rfmkdir /castor/
rfchmod 775 /castor/

Anton: Try Olga's suggestion. In case it still does not work, use a different file transfer pattern: copy them locally and then move to CASTOR .

  Main commands

This is a short summary for CRAB commands and actions to run a job, derived from WorkBookCRABTutorial

  • Setup: Three steps in this order:
    • Step 1: setup the access to the LCG User Interface ( LCG UI )
. /afs/    # LCG = WLCG = Worldwide LHC Computing Grid project
    • Step 2: setup the CMSSW environnment:
...; cmsenv 
    • Step 3: CRAB setup
. /afs/ 
  • Create CRAB Configuration file crab.cfg : copy and edit a template
    • templates are available in
      $CRABPATH/crab.cfg : contains essential parameters , and
      $CRABPATH/full_crab.cfg : a fully documented template
    • comments
  • A "man page" is invoked via
crab -h                       # opens a help with the `less' viewer 
  • Create a job:
crab -create                  # creates a directory, default: crab_0_YYMMDD_HHMMSS 
  • Submit a job:
crab -submit                  # last created job
crab -submit -c <dir name>    # an arbitrary job
  • Check status of a job:
crab -status                  # the latest job
crab -status -c <dir name>    # an arbitrary job
The status includes web addresses for monitoring pages. They can be printed separately via
crab -printId                 # prints Task Id, CMS Dashboard, Server page
  • Get output of a job:
crab -getoutput               # fetch output into crab.../res directory
crab -getoutput -c <dir name> # arbitrary job
  • Print a short report:
crab -report [ -c <dir name> ]
  • Retrieve output from remote StorageElement (SE)
crab -copyData [-c <dir name>]  # copy data from remote SE to crab.../res directory
Specifying either `-dest_se=' or `-dest_endpoint=' , the output can be directed to another SE.
  • Publish output data stored at the remote SE
crab -publish

DIY (Do It Yourself)

  Kab. ikra

Recept 2012:

  • ingredients:
    • kabachki 3 kg
    • perec sladkij 1 kg
    • tomaty 1.5 kg
    • morkov' 400-500 g
    • luk repka 200 g (1 krupnaya lukovica)
    • specii:
      • sol' 1.5 st. lozhki
      • ukrop sushenyj 1. st. lozhka
      • lavrovyj list 5-7 listikov
      • perec dushistyj 10 goroshin
      • perec chernyj 10 goroshin
  • shinkuem pomidory + perec, dobavlyaem specii, shinkuem ostal'nye ovoschi, dobavlyaem, peremeshivaem; nikakoj vody!
  • dovodim do kipeniya, varim ~20'
  • itog: 5.5 kg produkta + .7 kg ochistkov

  Kitajskij fonarik: vybor ogranichitel'nogo rezistora

  • Upgrade of 3 flashlights 06.07.17 -- installing a limiting resistor
    • yellow flashlight with 5 LEDs
      • initial parameters:
        • 18350 LiIon battery (orange) (dis)charged to E = 3.89-3.91 V, U = 3.48-3.50 V, I = 0.37 A
          • the current is ~3x higher than the expected normal one = 5 * (25-30 mA) = 125-150 mA
          • the resistance of 5 parallel LEDs is ~10 Ohm
          • the voltage U = 3.5V is about the same as the battery voltage at which the flashlight stops illuminating
            • => the I(U) function of the LED is about vertical near 3.5 V,
              • => at the desired current of 125 mA, the LEDs resistance will be about 3 times bigger i.e. ~30 Ohm, => if the external resistor is to take ~10% of E_battery, it should be ~10% of 30 Ohm i.e. ~3 Ohm.
          • the internal resistance of the battery is ~ .4 V / .37 A = ~ 1 Ohm
      • Two values of the additional resistors were tried : 3 and 6.2 Ohm.
        The 6.2 Ohm option was chosen (3 Ohm gave rise to higher currents)
        • The results are:
          • with the mentioned battery at E = 3.88-3.89 V, we have U = 3.81-3.82 V and I = 100 mA ,
            • the voltage drop on the additional resistor is unexpectedly high: 0.1 A * 6 Ohm = 0.6 V,
              • => the LEDs are working at the voltage of 3.81 - 0.60 = ~ 3.21 V
          • with another 18350 battery (grey) at E = 4.17 V, we have I = 125 mA .
    • orange flashlight with 9 LEDs of which one is dead, plus one more in an unstable state: blinking / dead / working
      • the battery is an 18650 LiIon at E = 3.92-3.93 V
      • initial parameters:
        • I = 173 mA (the unstable LED blinking?)
        • I = 164 mA, U = 3.40 V (the unstable LED temporarily dead)
      • An additional 3 Ohm resistor installed. The results are (the unstable LED working)
        • I = 126 mA, U_LED = 3.20 V
    • green flashlight (similar to the _orange one) with 9 LEDs (all working)
      • the battery is a LiIon of AAA size at E = 3.92 -> 3.80 V (the voltage decreasing during the tests)
      • initial parameters:
        • I = 143 mA, U = 3.26 V (the unstable LED temporarily dead)
      • with the 3 Ohm resistor installed:
        • I = 93 mA

  Kvashenie kapusty

  LED lamps


  Skleivanie tkani s pomosch'yu BF-6

See here .


  Auto-indentation of new lines: how to disable ?

  • How to disable auto-indentation of new lines?

  • Experimenting with Emacs 25.3-3, I found that M-x electric-indent-mode toggles between
               electric-indent-mode enabled (default) / disabled .
    In parallel
               Ret behaviour changes between newline and indent (default) and newline only

  "Quickies for emacs" page

A page with emacs tips/tricks/... : "Quickies for emacs"

  Revisiting / reloading a file

The tip is from the "Quickies for emacs" :

The $Id $ tags for CVS are nice, but it can be a pain when you're doing lots of checkins and have to re-load the file each time. You can

  • either execute M-x revert-bufer
    or bind that to a key,
  • or else use a trick by doing C-x C-v which invokes find-alternate-file , but just so happens to have the current buffer name, so you just have to do C-x C-v RET

  Scroll Current Line to the Top of the Window

A tip from here : C-u 0 C-l

  Spaces instead of Tabs

The tip by Ryan McGeary is from Quick Tip: Spaces instead of Tabs (see for more details):


  • Tab characters used as indentation of source code is a pet peeve of mine. Add this to your emacs initialization to make sure all indentation uses spaces instead.
;; I hate tabs!
(setq-default indent-tabs-mode nil)
Now, if you also use tab completion everywhere, someday, you'll want to actually insert a real character (ASCII 9), but won't be able too. Quoted-insert to the rescue. Type C-q C-i to insert a horizontal tab character. "

  shell command: insert output into the current buffer

A tip from here :            C-u M-! command , or M-1 M-! command
E.g.: M-1 M-! date

Manual: M-! , M-1


    CopyAndPaste does not work in a Windows style?

  • one way: see
  • one more way from (valid starting from GNU Emacs CVS / 23 ?):
    • M-w to copy from emacs
    • C-y to paste to emacs
  • another way: select the C-x/C-c/C-v Cut and Paste (CUA) in the Options menu; this will activate the C-v at least


    Font setting : how to set a KOI-8 font

From section 5.1 Font names of FAQ: 5.Fonts and text translation:

  • There are two ways to refer to a font, e.g.:
    • XLFD: -*-Courier New-normal-r-*-*-13-*-*-*-c-*-iso8859-1
    • Fontconfig: Courier New-13
  • To find the XFLD name for a font, you can execute the following in the scratch buffer by pressing C-j at the end of the line:
    • (w32-select-font nil t)
      -> a font menu opens where you can select a font
    • the selected font name (of rather the Fontconfig flavour!) appears in the next line of the scratch buffer in quotes, e.g.:
      • "ROL-K8/Courier-10"

The font name with an approapriate number in the end (the font size) can then be given as an input to the

  • M-x set-default-font command :
    • the prompt follows: Font name:
      • you enter, e.g.: ROL-K8/Courier-12

One more way to set the font is to create a shortcut, say, emacs-koi indicating there the start-up font, e.g., the associated object can be

  • "C:\Program Files (x86)\emacs-23.4\bin\runemacs.exe" -fn ROL-K8/Courier-12

    Read-in an "ascii" unix file

The command inspired by Emacs manual: 26.6 Coding Systems :

  • C-x c raw-text-unix RET C-x C-f filename RET
    • the raw-text-unix is one of numerous coding systems,
      RET is the return key
    • this allows one to see and edit octal bytes like e.g. \232 not interpreted as e.g. japan symbols

    SSH Client window: emacs @ linux settings for a koi8-r file

  • Here is a procedure for emacs 23.1.1 (x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu, GTK+ Version 2.24.23)
    run under SLD6 linux @ (with the fs sys reporting "Current sysname list is 'amd64_rhel60' 'amd64_linux26'" ).
    Emacs is invoked in a terminal window with a koi8-r font set in the SSH Client
    • It is launched with the emacs -nw a_koi8_file .
      • C-x RET f koi8 defines the "Coding system for saving the buffer"
      • C-x RET t koi8 defines the "Coding system for terminal output "
      • C-x RET k koi8 defines the "Coding system for keyboard input "
      • Then C-h C RET may describe the coding system as follows
        Coding system for saving this buffer:
          R -- cyrillic-koi8-unix (alias: koi8-r-unix koi8-unix cp878-unix)
        Default coding system (for new files):
          R -- cyrillic-koi8-unix (alias: koi8-r-unix koi8-unix cp878-unix)
        Coding system for keyboard input:
          R -- koi8 (alias of cyrillic-koi8)
        Coding system for terminal output:
          R -- koi8 (alias of cyrillic-koi8)
        Coding system for inter-client cut and paste:
        Defaults for subprocess I/O:
          decoding: R -- cyrillic-koi8-unix (alias: koi8-r-unix koi8-unix cp878-unix)
          encoding: R -- cyrillic-koi8-unix (alias: koi8-r-unix koi8-unix cp878-unix)
        Priority order for recognizing coding systems when reading files:
          1. cyrillic-koi8 (alias: koi8-r koi8 cp878)
          2. utf-8 (alias: mule-utf-8)
          3. iso-2022-7bit
        and a triple R appears in the buffer's status line ( RRR in positions 2-4)

  • Note: on the SLD5 platforms with an earlier versions of emacs, the above long manipulations did not seem to have been needed -- everything went automatically.

  • The above procedure may be unsuccessful for visiting an already existing koi8-r file.
    Emacs may draw all the Russian symbols in octal representation ( like \nnn ).
    In this case the following may help:
    • reread the file using a correct coding system: C-x RET r koi8-r (... yes )
      (C-x RET r is a shortcut for M-x revert-buffer-with-coding-system),
      • C-x RET t koi8
      • C-x RET k koi8

    SSH Client window with emacs -nw : DELETE erases backwards, BACKSPACE invokes help like C-h

  • I have run into the above problem at CERN under SL6 linux (it seems to me I have seen it also on SL6 at DESY and even cured it somehow, but do not remember how)
  • Here is a remedy from
    • M-x normal-erase-is-backspace toggles between
      • the "wrong" behaviour
      • and a "more normal" one where
        • DELETE erases forwards
        • BACKSPACE erases backwards
        • unfortunately, also C-h erases backwards instead of invoking help
          (one can try M-x help to invoke help...)


  Fedora repositories


    disabling SELinux

The tip is from here :

"SELinux is a security extension of Fedora that should provide extended security..." In order to dsable it:

  • Edit /etc/selinux/config and set SELINUX=disabled
  • reboot




    Windows Tabbing in Plasma -- group similar windows

      Tabs inside a window

  • The control is in System Settings -> Workspace Appearance and Behavior -> Window Behavior -> Window Behavior (ieft column) -> tab Advanced -> Window Tabbing -> select "Automatically group similar windows" -> Apply (right-bottom corner)

      Tabs inside the taskbar panel

  • The control is in: right-mouse click on Window List inside the panel -> click Task Manager Settings -> select General in the left column -> section Grouping and Sorting -> (set Grouping to By Program Name) -> deselect Only when taskbar is full in order to "always group windows" -> press Apply
    -> A logout/login may be needed to activate the selection.

  • a discussion
    • "In F18 (From fresh RC4 install) with Mate 1.5.5 the Window List "Always group windows" is broken. Changing from "Never group windows" to "Always group windows" has no effect and the setting is lost after logging out." ...


  or : A or B

grep -E "A|B"

or, equivalently,
egrep "A|B"

  tab character: grep for

The problem is that typing a tab in a command line, usually does not produce a tab. Also grep "\t" looks for both `\' and `t' but independently of each other...

Way 1
(found at

Use perl-type pattern in GNU grep:

grep -P '\t' ...           (or:    grep -P "\t" ... )

Way 2

Putting the tab on the command line:

  • start with pressing the tab key ,
  • follow with the " ,
  • move back to the command beginning with left arrow (or Cntr-a ) ,
  • type there grep " ,
  • go to the end (Cntr-e), and add a file (files) to be checked.
    You get at this stage something like
    ... $ grep "   " filename

  two examples with regular expressions

Example 1

Looking for lines in fortran code containing (up to blanks) a free-format write's into a character like

"write ( a_variable , * )" :
  grep -i "write[ ]*[(][ ]*[[:alpha:]][[:alnum:]]*[ ]*[,][ ]*[*][ ]*[)]" */*F \
  |grep -vi "write[ ]*([ ]*lun" \
  |grep -vi "write[ ]*([ ]*logunit" \
  |grep -vi "write[ ]*([ ]*ll" \
  | grep -iv cerr
  • Note: The `*' after a searched character means any number of such characters (zero included). E.g. `[ ]*' means any number of spaces.

Example 2

Looking for a NON-FREE format writes to a character variable like

"write ( a_variable , 7000)..." or "write ( a_variable , '(...)')..." :
  grep -i "write[ ]*[(][ ]*[[:alpha:]][[:alnum:]]*[ ]*[,]" */*F \
  |grep -iv "write[ ]*[(][ ]*[[:alpha:]][[:alnum:]]*[ ]*[,][ ]*[*][ ]*[)]"  \
  |grep -vi "write[ ]*([ ]*lun" \
  |grep -vi "write[ ]*([ ]*logunit" \
  |grep -vi "write[ ]*([ ]*ll" \
  | grep -iv cerr \
  | grep -iv cline \
  | grep -iv ldbg \
  | grep -iv NEWBCD \
  | grep -iv IENVRN



see AVFedotovHowToRDIGCertificate


  lxplus news

See AVFedotovHowToLxplusNews (edit)


GNU Make Manuals: AVFedotovHowToGnuMakeManuals


  functional equations

  Linear Algebra

  Linear Least Squares


  Text- and Hand- books


  merge flv files

A tip from here :

mencoder -forceidx -of lavf -oac copy -ovc copy -o output.flv clip1.flv \
clip2.flv clip3.flv 

  merge mp4 files

A tip by microchip :

mencoder file1.mp4 file2.mp4 -ovc copy -oac copy -of lavf format=mp4 -o output.mp4
Here -of lavf format=mp4 seems to define the mp4 container for the output file which is by default (w/o this option) avi. An alternative way to specify the same (?) is -of lavf -lavfopts format=mp4 .

This did not work for me:

  • I got lots of "Skipping frame!" messages
  • At some point (at the start of the second input file?), mencoder hanged always writing an A-V: nan string, like e.g.
    Pos: 166.3s 4617f ( 1%) 3019.62fps Trem: 1min 761mb A-V: nan [454:63]
    and did not react to any command (I had to suspend it with C-z and then abort via kill -9 ).

After several trials I succeeded by changing -oac copy to -oac faac , thus forcing mencoder to recode the audio stream (-oac mp3lame also worked with a bit worse length of the audio stream).
For my files with an H.264 video and an AAC audio, the performance was:

  • the merging time was about 1/8 of the play time (not too fast!)
  • the output file size was by 9% bigger than the sum of sizes of the input files

I used the command

mencoder 1.mp4  2.mp4 -o all.mp4 -of lavf -lavfopts format=mp4 -oac faac -ovc copy


  Account MS

  MS Office

    convert to pdf: free web interface

13.02.10 -- Convert Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Images, Web Pages and other files to PDF

  Programs for Windows

    Create a bootable USB drive from an ISO image

    Graphic viewers

  • IrfanView -- " of the most popular viewers worldwide" (freeware)

    X emulation

  • 20.03.11 V.Andr-v recommends xming (also cygwin )



    md5sum, sha1sum, sha256sum etc. for Win32

See Win32 native md5sum, sha1sum, sha256sum etc. by Nagy Ferenc László.
Downloadable file contains executables (valid on 17.08.11)

  • md5sum.exe
  • sha1sum.exe
  • sha224sum.exe
  • sha256sum.exe
  • sha384sum.exe
  • sha512sum.exe

An example (11.04.12) of Win 7 usage of sha256sum.exe inspired by this instruction and unix man sha256sum :

  • copy the executable into the directory with the file to be checked
  • start -> search for cmd -> run cmd.exe
  • cd c:\data\...\Fedora..
    c:\data\Distributives\Fedora-16-x86_64-DVD>sha256sum.exe -c Fedora-16-x86_64-CHECKSUM Fedora-16-x86_64-DVD.iso
    or just
    c:\data\Distributives\Fedora-16-x86_64-DVD>sha256sum.exe -c Fedora-16-x86_64-CHECKSUM

  Windows 7

    Autostart of programs



    Clock: Ubuntu changes Win time to UTC

    Disk Cleanup

    • Disk cleanup (ru Win7 name Ochistka diska) -- a system application to remove unneeded files on a disk. To be run under Administrator for more options. An alternative name: cleanmgr ( cleanmgr.exe ).

    Glavnoe Menu: how to change



      Removing the homegroup icon from the desktop

  • The icon may appear on the desktop with strange features: it is immovable, does not have Properties or Delete fields in the context menu.
    The HomeGroup is accessible from any Explorer window, and you may want to delele the icon from the desktop
    Q: How to delete it?
  • A: (from the video (ru) by Milton Eriksson
    • Desktop context menu -> press Personalization ("Personalizaciya")
    • press Change desktop icons ("Izmenenie znachkov rabochego stola")
      -- opens a window Parametry rabochego stola ("Desktop settings"?)
    • Check Set' ("Network"?), then press Apply ("Primenit'")
      -- this replaces the HomeGroup icon on the desktop with the Set' ("Network"?) icon.
    • Uncheck Set' ("Network"?), then press Apply ("Primenit'")
      -- this deletes the Set' ("Network"?) icon.

    "Network connections" shortcut : creation

    Ping: allow Win 7 to respond to ping requests

  • Control panel -> Brandmauer Windows -> Dopolnitel'nye parametry -> Pravila dlya vhodyaschih podklyuchenij
    • select pravilo Obshij dostup k fajlam i printeram (eho-zapros - vhodyschij trafik ICMPv6) (profil' obschie )
    • click Vklyuchit' pravilo in the menu on the right hand side

    Screen Saver on request

    Setevisor stopped working


Setevisor (the plugin-container, actually) in firefox 9 suddenly crashed (Windows 7). A bit later, firefox crashed. Then, during the reboot, Windows had to check the hard disk, then rebooted once again automatically.

  • Then the setevisor could not be started. Pressing play button lead to a dead black setevisor screen with no sound.
  • same story with Opera and IE (64-bit) browsers
  • youtube and being played OK

Googling : reports on the same problem (setevisor not working) are found.
In two cases, the problem is associated with Kaspersky antivirus program blocking the setevisor.
In one case, the problem was even resolved by switching off an antibanner (?what is that?).

I had no installed antivirus except the MS Security Essentials. Running the latter in a fast scan/check mode did not show any problem...

The problem was solved by

  • uninstalling the Adobe Flash Player (Control Panel -> Programs and components -> Select -> Remove)
  • then installing it from scratch from Adobe site (done from firefox: a page with setevisor opened, firefox suggested to install the missing plugin -> corresponding button pressed; that initiated the installation sequence)

Strangely, this fixed the problem with IE-64bit too, despite the fact that a special version of the Flash Player (64-bit for IE ) must have been used by IE -- this version was left intact : neither uninstalled nor installed again.

    Time in the hardware clock: Make Windows use UTC

  • By default Win7 requires the hardware clock time to be a local time .
    With a dual/multiple-boot box, one may need to have the UTC ("Universal") time in the hardware
    A tip from on how to do it:
    • To make MS Windows calculate the time from the hardware clock as UTC.
      • Create a file named WindowsTimeFixUTC.reg with the following contents and then double click on it to merge the contents with the registry:
        Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00

    An official Win 7 end-of-support info 14.01.2020

  Windows 8

    Windows 8.1 Release

  Windows 10

    Upgrading to Windows 10

    Beginner's Random Topics

    Cannot Safely Remove an External USB HDD

  • The above solution worked a couple of times for me with a TOSHIBA USB 3.0 external 1TB HDD, then stopped working...

  • Other recipes from the same thread :
    • 20 Nov 2015 #23 gingerwerewolf
      "Something to note on Widows 10 is that when a drive is in the Navigation Pane - it is constantly locked and treated as in use by the OS"
      • tried, did not help me
    • 13 Dec 2015 #24 TeChHelp
      "Device manager .., -> uninstall driver... , shutdown. remove hdd, boot, connect hdd..., wait for driver installation & check whether you are able to remove it safely Or Not .. IT WORKS FOR ME ..."
      • tried, did not help me
    • 11 Feb 2016 #34 otenewhanau
      'You will notice under the Policies tab "Quick Removal" is set as the default so just change to "Better Performance". Restart computer and it should all work'
      • tried, did not help me
    • 24 Apr 2016 #42 anonymous1234
      "Disk Management -> Right-click the disk -> option to take the drive "offline.""
      • could not find such an option
    • 26 Oct 2016 #43 finlay
      'For me, it was Windows Defender. I turned off "Real time protection", and I was able to safely remove USB device without the in-use message.'
      • the Win.Defender seemed not to run, in view of running McAfee.
        Tried to turn off a real-time scan in McAfee, did not help.
    • 22 Dec 2016 #45 Rose W
      " I use the Everything search software ... I went into the Everything options and removed the choice to be available at start up..."
    • 03 Mar 2017 #48 mmortal03
      "Going into Services and restarting the Server service and/or the Computer Browser service has more often than not allowed the Safely Remove option to then work from the system tray for me."
      • tried, did not help me : tried Server (ru: "Server"), while the Computer Browser (ru: "Brauzer komp'yuterov") was not running => not tried

  • I also tried:
    • Disk Management -> removal of drive letters D: and E: from the two available partitions of the external HDD
      • did not help.

  • The Quick Removal policy set by default for my disk, suggests that
    Safely remove hardware button is not needed.
    However, the "but" in the description makes one doubt it ( a translation from Russian: " but using Safely-remove-hardware is not mandatory " ?):

    • Device Management -> Disk drives -> my disk -> Properties -> Policies tab

  • And here is an English version of the description of the Quick Removal policy, which looks much less alarming than the Russian one (a different default for the policy may be due to a different type of device, SSD i.o. HDD) :
  • There is always a boring 100% safe option :
    • first shutdown the PC
    • then remove the disk

    Win10-Linux dual boot

      EasyBCD and Win10-Linux dual boot via UEFI

      Fast boot option of Win 10 to be turned off

  • The article Windows 8 (or 10) boot problems ? Please read this before posting
    describes problems with Fast Boot and recommends to turn the option off as follows:
    • The way to TURN the fast boot OFF :
      • Win 8:
        The solution is to enter the Control Panel > Power Options, reveal the "currently unavailable" settings and choose "what the power button does"
        At the bottom of the page, scroll down to Shutdown Settings & remove the tick from "Turn on fast startup"
      • Win 10:
        All of this applies to Windows 10 too, though the solution is slightly different.
        You must choose "what the power button does", and then reveal the "currently unavailable" options, which will "ungrey" the things you need to change.

    Accessing BIOS from Windows 10

  • How to Access the BIOS on a Windows 10 PC , :
    • Start button -> Settings -> Update & security (ru: Obnovlenie i bezopasnost' )
    • -> Select Recovery from the left menu (ru: Vosstanovlenie)
    • -> Click Restart Now under Advanced startup (ru: Perezagruzit' sejchas under Osobye varianty zagruzki ).
      • The comptuer will reboot to a special menu.
    • -> Click Troubleshoot (ru: Poisk i ustranenie neisparavnostej ).
    • -> Click Advanced options (ru: Dopolnitel'nye parametry ).
    • -> Select UEFI Firmware Settings (ru: Parametry vstoennogo PO UEFI ).
    • -> Click Restart (ru: Perezagruzit' ) .
      • Your system will restart and take you to the BIOS Setup Utility.

  • Getting just the version number of the BIOS Setup Utility :
    • Win + R -> type msinfo32 -> press Enter -> see BIOS Version in the appearing table



  Capture a radio stream as mp3

  • Finding the mp3-stream url

    • If an internet radio transmits an mp3 stream, then in browser, the stream url may be got as follows (works in firefox at least):
      • right-click at the player bar
      • copy the url with Copy Audio Location
    • If that does not work, the Chrome browser may help as described in (ru)
      -> Instructions "Kak poluchat' ssylki iz brauzera"
      -> "Lyuboe radio iz interneta s pomosch'yu Chrome"

  • Capture the sound from the sound card with ffmpeg (tested for Fedora 27 linux)

    • The radio may not allow one to capture the sound stream directly.
      Then a way out may be to play the stream in browser and record the analog stream generated by the audio card.
      This can be done e.g. with
                 ffmpeg -f alsa -i pulse -c:a libmp3lame -b:a 128k an_output_file.mp3
      provided that the system audio capture device is set up correctly.

      By default it is in the state of "Built-in Audio Analog Stereo" (micrpohone), while you need it to be "Monitor of Built-in Audio Analog Stereo" (speakers/headset) .
      The state can be switched with the pavucontrol utility (PulseAudio Volume Control ).

      The procedure is described in "How to Record System Sound with Pulse Audio and Audacity in Linux" for the Sound Recording Program (SRP) Audacity, and suits to the SRP ffmpeg as well:
      • Start pavucontrol. The "Recording" tab is blank.
      • Start recording with an SRP . Now the "Recording" shows the default "Built-in Audio Analog Stereo"
      • Press the "Built-in..." bar and switch to the "Monitor..." option.
        From this moment the SRP gets its input from "speakers"
        (here you may want to restart the recording to have a clean beginning of the output file).
      • Having the recording finished, switch to the initial setting in pavucontrol while the SRP still working (either in the last second(s) of the main recording, or in a new SRP run with a dummy output file).

  convert a file


See AVFedotovHowToDrive

  Google search


  • Phone directories
    • A list by A.M.Kozodaev for July 2011: doc , pdf
      • -- A version put onto Google Drive 17.10.16 by Dima Mironov, open to editing ( "... Ya vylozhil versiyu tel.spravochnika ot Aleksandra na Google Drive. Vy mozhete redaktirovat' svoj nomer. dobavlyat'sya v nego. ..."):



      Blood pressure

      Blood tests


      Vladimir Skulachev


      apteki: poisk


    OMS -- ob. med. strahovanie

  HEP Detectors

  • ECFA Detector Panel Meeting, DESY, 2-3.05.12
    a review of ILC calorimetry
  • Electrons for the LHC (CERN Courier, 27.04.12) -- about the report on the physics programme, a detector design and the accelerator options for the proposed Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC) project

  HowTo sites





    Metro, other public transport

    Old photos

    Phone numbers

    Tarify ZhKH





    Akcizy na tabak



  Internet Shopping

    Mail Forwarding







  Srednyaya zarplata i pr.


Open Office

  User Guides for 3.x

Guides > Impress

  Impress: latex

see AVFedotovHowToOOImpressLatex


  Banned sites

  Cloud storages

  DNS -- public servers

  • Google Public DNS: ipv4: , (ipv6 versions: 2001:4860:4860::8888 , 2001:4860:4860::8844)

  Domain query


  Home Internet


  • My commands
    • @ dom2 (Fedora 10)
      • ifup Stream
      • ifdown Stream
      • ifconfig
    • @ dom (RedHat9)
      • if0u
      • if0d
      • if0s


  • Modem / ONT (Optical Network Terminal) -- installed 17.04.13:
    • HUAWEI HG8245T
      • Service Manual: EchoLife HG8240/HG8245/HG8247 GPON Terminal V100R002C04&C05 Service Manual, Issue 02, Date 2011-01-26 ( PDF: source, local copy )
        • sect. 3.2.1: default users root / admin / telecomadmin / admintelecom
    • External IP address: identified by nslookup as -- may change with time?
      • 04.06.13: new address identified by nslookup as
      • 25.06.13: new address identified by nslookup as
      • 22.07-20.08.13 : ?
      • 21.08.13: current address identified by nslookup as
      • 26.02.14: new address identified by nslookup as
      • 21.05.14: new address identified by nslookup as
      • 26.06.14: new address identified by nslookup as
      • 02.07.14: new address
      • 08.07.14: new address
      • 09.07.14: new address
      • 14.07.14: new address
      • 14.07.14: new address
      • 17.12.14:
        • new address
        • then
        • then
        • then
      • 29.04.15: new address (until at least 07.09.15)
      • . . .
      • 18.09.12: address (since not earlier than 07.09.15)
      • 21.10.12: new address
    • Internal IP address:
    • Average power consumption: 10W ? (not exactly my model !)
      22.04.14 measured 8.5 W with computers off
    • IDs from the ONT log file (as of 18.04.13):
      Manufacturer: Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd;
      ProductClass: HG8245T;
      SerialNumber: 48575443CC8DD620;
      HWVer: 211EC463;
      SWVer: V2R006C00S100;

      15.06.13: an updated SWVer noticed:
      SWVer: V2R006C00S120;
    • Internal http address:
    • WiFi: mgtspon61-a9061y61

  • LAN1: dom3
    • Win 7
      IP IP address
      submet mask
      main gateway
      DNS preferred
  • LAN2: dom
    • RedHat9:
      IP IP address
      submet mask
      main gateway
      DNS preferred
      alternative -
    • Win XP (as far as remembered, to be updated):
      IP get automatically
      DNS get automatically

      GPON TV

local copy:



  Mobile nets

    MGTS Mobile

    tarif "MTS Connect-4"


  • MTS: getting to operator:
    • from a non-MTS phone: 8-800-250-0890 -> menu -> 1 -> 0
    • from an MTS phone: 0890 -> menu -> 2 -> 0
  • MGTS call center 495 636-0-636
  • Beeline call center (from
    • 8 800 700 0611 -> 0 -> 0
    • 0611 from a Beeline phone, then, may be, -> 1 -> 0)

    InterRussia and International calls from Moscow (MGTS)

Rostelekom MTS
InterRussia 8 55 < region code > < local number > 8 23 < region code > < local number >
International 8 10 < country code > < region code > < local number > 8 28 < country code > < region code > < local number >

  • tariffs for SPb (rub/min), Sep 2012:
    • MTS: 1.85
    • Rostelekom: 2.25

  Social nets

  Speed Tests


    Problems with Vidyo



  my PCs


    Touchpad -- turning off

  USB flash drives

    R/W speed tests

  • 64GB USB 3.0 disk "Richwell" (a golden "key")
    • exFAT, 128 KiB clusters, capacity 65.43 GB = 60.94 GiB
      • write 65 1GB-files at fedora 27 @ dom5 (exFAT activated via a "fuse" mechanism) ( log )
        • the speed decreases as file number grows, e.g., #10: 1'11", #65: 1'59"
        • an average speed = 9.34 MB/s
      • read files 1-38 at Fedora 27 (1-65 submitted but interrupted due to a strong slowing down) ( log )
        • the time per file increases dramatically as file number grows, e.g. from 47" (#1) to 18' (#38)
        • average speed: 6.13 MB/s
      • Rewrite files 1 and 20 at Win 7 @ dom3, then
        read 1-65 again (fedora again) ( log )
        • the time is better for the 1-38 set from the previous test, but still gets very bad, closer to the end:
          #1: 47", #38: 51", #59: 1'63", #65: 15.5'
        • average speed: 8.19 MB/s
      • Now add a 1 KB file at Win 7. This improves the disk readability mistically:
        read 1-65 , 100MB / file to speed up the test ( log )
        • the timing gets uniform: ~4-5 s / file
        • average speed: 20.50 MB/s

  • 64GB USB 3.0 disk (a silvery "brelok", bought as a "Richwell")
    • exFAT, 128 KiB clusters, capacity 65.43 GB = 60.94 GiB
      • write 65 1GB-files at fedora 27 @ dom5 ( log )
        • timing examples: #10: 1'35", #65: 2'54"
        • average speed: 6.54 MB/s
      • read 1-65 , 300MB / file ( log )
        • timing examples: #10: 17", #65: 18"
        • average speed: 17.35 MB/s
      • (did we add a 1KB file at Win 7 ? -- not sure)
        read 1-65 , 100MB / file ( log )
        • timing examples: #10: 6", #65: 9"
        • average speed: 13.71 MB/s
          • somewhat worse than in the previous read test, why?
      • rewrite the file #1 at Win 7
        read 1-65 , 100MB / file ( log )
        • timing examples: #10: 6", #65: 2'04"
        • average speed: 7.32 MB/s
          • a new disaster!
      • Win 7: add a ~100MB file, then delete it.
        read 1-65 , 100MB / file ( log )
        • timing examples: #10: ~6", #65: ~5"
        • average speed: 19.52 MB/s
          • a mistic improvement!

  • 256GB USB 3.0 disk (black with a rotary shield)
    • exFAT, 128 KiB clusters, capacity 268.43 GB = 249.99 GiB
      • write 258 1GB-files at fedora 27 @ dom5 ( log )
        • average speed: 8.71 MB/s
      • read 1-268 , 100MB / file ( log )
        • average speed: 20.06 MB/s
      • Win 7 @ dom3: add a ~1KB and a ~100MB file, then delete them.
        read 1-268 , 100MB / file ( log )
        • average speed: 18.37 MB/s
          • a ~10% decrease relative to the previous read test.

  • 16GB USB 3.0 disk "Kingston" (Datatraveler G4)
    • FAT32 , 16 KiB clusters, capacity 15.46 GB = 14.32 GiB
      • write 15 1GB-files at fedora 27 @ dom5 ( log )
        • average speed: 5.04 MB/s
      • read 1-15 ( log )
        • average speed: 49.83 MB/s

ps utils


If ps2pdf does not respect the a4 paper size of the input ps file then the following option may help (found in man gs):

  • ps2pdf -sPAPERSIZE=a4


For usage examples, see AVFedotovHowToPstops


  not starting on Fedora 10

02.04.11 . Fedora 10 .
After not having been able to start pulseaudio during few hours I succeeded (pulseaudio --start;pulseaudio --check;echo $?; xmms ...) after

rm -rf /tmp/pulse-2L9K88eMlGn7

So next time ls /tmp/ |grep pulse- may help too?
The procedure was inspired by reading the .
04.04.11 : unfortunately, this procedure helps rarely ...

04.04.11 . Fedora 10 .
Succeeded to restart with

rm -rf /tmp/pulse-*
pulseaudio --start;  pulseaudio --cleanup-shm;pulseaudio --check; echo $?
The --cleanup-shm was new (shm stands for shared memory ).


  plotting data (stored as histos) without xaxis error

A tip by Andreas Jung from :

"Date: 2011 Apr 20, 19:49

Hi all

in case someone is faced with the same problem: Usually analyzers store their data as a histo and error as TGraphs. If it comes to Prelim or Publication the "management" usually wants to have data without the somewhat ugly error in x (reflecting the bin size).

In case you dont already know this: Previously one had to copy the data into TGraphs to get rid of this, very painfull. Now root has a drawing option for that: "X0". It works together with any of the "EX" options for instance ("E1X0"), saves a lot of work.

cheers andy "


"How to Create or Modify a style" by Rene Brun, Fons Rademakers


See AVFedotovHowToRootTDecompQRH


  Unicode -> koi8-r


A russuian unicode text is seen in the web browser. How to convert it into a koi-8 txt file? The following recipe is inspired by

  • open an empty file txt (or any other name) with emacs
  • mark with mouse the needed text fragment in the browser window and copy it into emacs window
  • save:
    emacs : Select coding system (default mule-utf-8):
    you : press Enter
  • Checking the coding:
    you: file txt
    file : txt: UTF-8 Unicode text, with very long lines
    ("with very long lines" does not appear necessarily)
  • Recoding:
    recode UTF-8..KOI8-R txt
  • Checking the coding:
    you: file txt
    file : txt: ISO-8859 text, with very long lines
  • That is it. You may want to edit the txt with emacsrus or pico or ...

  Universal Cyrillic Converter

  • Writing KOI8-R with UCC under Windows 7:
    • open the UCC page in a browser (checked with Firefox)
    • set KOI8-R encoding
    • enter a text in russian:
      • type it with the keyboard
      • or copy-paste from another web page
    • convert WINDOWS -> KOI8
    • copy the result
    • when you paste it, it will be KOI8-R
      • PS 20.03.13:
        Perhaps, you have to have the system language set to Russian (Russia) ( Control panel -> Lanquages -> Advanced (ru: Dopolnitel'no) -> Change system language )
        Today, when I had English as the system lanquage, pasting the converted text into an SSH Client window resulted in question marks i.o. russian letters . Everything became normal after changing the system language to Russian. Was it a coincidence?

  YAWERTY keyboard layout for Windows

    "Standard" case (yawerty CP-1251)

      "Standard" YAWERTY: the version

  • From "to P. Go...ev Fri, 11 Feb 2011 00:18:53" :
    • U menya v Windows (Vista) davno stoit pereklyuchatel' EN/RU, no russkaya raskladka klaviatury tipa "typewriter" dlya menya, kak kitajskaya gramota. Segodya ya peredelal RU na "russkuyu foneticheskuyu raskladku", k kotoroj ya davno privyk pod linux'om: A = A, B = "BE", i t.d. (za neskol'kimi isklyucheniyami: Q ="YA",...).
    • Smotrite podrobnosti na
    • V konechnom itoge ya
      1. skachal
      2. unzipped the file
      3. ran setup.exe
      4. udalil staruyu raskladku (vam ne ponadobitsya?).
    • Procedura zanyala neskol'ko minut.

      "Standard" YAWERTY: AF's version

  • The above version by Paul Gorodyansky was modified by AF on Win 7 @ dom3 such that ch/CH, ha/HA and ss/SS (Soft Sign) are assigned to the keys "+", "H", and "X", respectively, as it is done in the `xruskb' Linux package.
  • Can be downloaded from
    • unzip -> ruskbd-yawerty-asLinux directory
      • see README_RuYLinux.txt for details
      • run ruylinux/setup.exe to install/uninstall the keyboard layout

  • UPD 08.04.17: works also for Windows 10 -- tested at dom5

    yawerty KOI8-R


Help : tar --help or tar --usage

Tar :

  • tar cBf filename dirname -- archive directory into a file
  • tar cBf - dirname > filename -- the same effect
  • option h (tar cBfh ...) : dump not symb links, but files they are pointing to ( default: symb links in archive)

Untar :

  • tar xvf filename -- extract the contents from an archive


  anchors (html)

An example for an anchor called myAnchor:

  • Set:
<a name="myAnchor"> some displayed text </a>
or just
<a name="myAnchor"></a>
  • Link:
<a href="#myAnchor"> a link text </a>

  access control


It looks like in order to make my page sort of private I need to insert (with 3 spaces in the beginning!)

 * Set ALLOWTOPICVIEW = Main.AlexanderFedotov
This has been checked:


    %color% text %ENDCOLOR% : a demo

RED text RED text
PINK text PINK text
TEAL text TEAL text
NAVY text NAVY text
BLUE text BLUE text
AQUA text AQUA text
LIME text LIME text
GREEN text GREEN text
OLIVE text OLIVE text
BROWN text BROWN text
BLACK text BLACK text
GRAY text GRAY text
WHITE text WHITE text

    how do web colours look like?

Here is a table with the names.

Another page: StandardColors ( The 216 Standard Colors )

  comments? ---> use HTML comments


The tip stolen from here

To hide sections of a TWiki topic, use HTML comments.

Example comment within a sentence:

Visible <!--- and hidden ---> text

Example spanning multiple lines:

   * Useful to hide settings:
      * Set EXAMPLE = This is hidden

  figure caption: a way to make


An example:

Begin the example:

  • a picture ( full size ) with a caption (this line is under bullet):
    second row of the table
    row 3 of the table
    row 4 of the table
    row 5 which is very long very long very long
    very long very long very long very long very
    long very long very long very long very long
    very long very long very long very long very
    long very long
    Here is a way to make figure captions:
    Fig.15. Then a general wording follows follows follows follows follows follows follows
    follows follows , FOLLOWED FINALLY by a UL list
    • item 1
      item 1 continued
    • item 2 -- the second one
    This line is under the initial bullet, but after the table.

And this line is a new paragraph.

END of the example

The above example is made by the following code:

   * a picture ([[%ATTACHURL%/test.gif  ][ full size ]])  with a caption (this line is under bullet):  <br />
     |  <img src="%ATTACHURLPATH%/test.gif" alt="tmpB_root.gif" width='500'  />  |
     |second row of the table |
     |  row 3 of the table  <br> bla <br> bla  |
     |                row 4 of the table|
     |                row 5 which is very long very long very long <br> \
                      very long very long very long very long very <br> \
                      long very long very long very long very long <br> \
                      very long very long very long very long very <br> \
                      long very long                                   |
     |  Here is a way to make figure captions: |
     |Fig.15. Then a general wording follows follows follows follows follows follows follows<br> \
        follows follows , FOLLOWED FINALLY by a UL list<br> \
        <ul><li>item 1 <br> item 1 continued \
              <li>item 2 -- the second one \
       </ul>  |
    This line is under the initial bullet, but after the table.

And _this line_ is a new paragraph.

  line spacing

The line spacing in a text can be controlled via

<div style="line-height: 100%;">  text  </div>
The `100%' is an example, generally it is `< your_value >< your_unit >' where the unit may be one of cm, px, pt, % .

  • Example: Compare
This is some text!
second line
This is some text!
second line
The second version is coded with
<div style="line-height: 100%;">
This is some text!
second line
while the first and last lines (with div ) are absent in the first version code.


    how to interrupt a nested list

  • Problem: you are, e.g. in the second level bullet, and would like to return into the last bullet of the first level.
  • Solution: insert the html tag end of unordered list :

An Example:

   * level 1
      * level 2 </ul>
        back to level 1 bullet
is interpreted as follows (in red italic -- just to emphasise):
  • level 1
    • level 2
    back to level 1 bullet

  • Similarly, an ordered list can be interrupted with

  latex via MathModePlugin


See separate page AVFedotovHowToTwikiLatexViaMathModePlugin for examples

  Set : page settings

    favorite page settings

The following text can be used as a header of a page source

  • it will be hidden in the view mode (due to <!-- ... --> )
  • to activate a setting, add two blanks before a `*' ( three blanks should be there in total)

   SETTINGS FOR THIS PAGE: (active are only those with 3 spaces before `*')
                                HIGHLIGT (VERBATIM and SYNTAX)

                                HIDE LEFT BAR

                                HIGHLIGT + HIDE LEFT BAR

                                LATEX VIA MATHMODEPLUGIN 
 * Set DISABLEDPLUGINS = LatexModePlugin
 * Set LATEXFONTSIZE = footnotesize 

                                DEFINE A VARIABLE (reference with %My40Blanks%)
 * Set My40Blanks = &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;

                                AN ALTERNATIVE
                                (this works only if defined in
                                 More Topic Actions
                                            -> Edit topic preference settings )
 * Set My40Blanks =                                                   


    highligting in verbatim and SYNTAX

Original source: CMS.WorkBookContributors#HighLight
(-> SyntaxHighlightingPlugin)

My version of a highlighting stylesheet:


My version of a highlighting + HidingLeftBar stylesheet:


For SYNTAX, one can dump the list of supported syntax names with

enscript --help-pretty-print | grep Name

    left bar: hiding


The latter page demonstrates how the left bar can be hidden: It contains the line (with three blanks before * !):

  * Set USERSTYLEURL = %ATTACHURL%/hideleftbar.css
where the hideleftbar.css file is ib the attachment:

The file contains:

#patternOuter {
#patternLeftBar {
/* for the content left margin use a bit smaller margin */
#patternMainContents {
   padding-left:2em; /*S6*/

So one can either attach a copy of this file to a page and use the above Set USERSTYLEURL = ... instruction,
or refer directly to that file (with three blanks before * !):


My version of a highlighting + HidingLeftBar stylesheet:


    pseudo TOC's

Settings of type (to activate, replace 1 space -> 3 spaces ):

 * Set myTocIndent = &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
 * Set myTocImg = <img src="" vspace="3" />
 * Set myToc1 = <br>%myTocIndent%%myTocImg%
 * Set myToc2 = <br>%myTocIndent%%myTocIndent%%myTocImg%
 * Set myToc3 = <br>%myTocIndent%%myTocIndent%%myTocIndent%%myTocImg%

can be exploited to produce a pseudo TOC :

%myToc1% link 1
%myToc1% link 2
 %myToc2% link 2.1
  %myToc3% link 2.2.1
  %myToc3% link 2.2.2
 %myToc2% link 2.3

  tags in TOC = Table of Content


The method has been inspired by

Put a tag with:

<div id="whatever-you-want-to-call-it"></div>

Reference to the tag:

<a href="#whatever-you-want-to-call-it">Link Text Here</a>


*Links to Threads*:
   * <a href="#thread1"> From cms.portal    </a>
   * <a href="#thread2"> To cmscaf-announce </a>

%TOC{ title = "Links to e-mails:" }%

---++ <div id="thread1"></div> From cms.portal

. . . . .
---++ <div id="thread2"></div>To cmscaf-announce


  verbatim with zero-width joiner

  • Q: How to write e.g. &‍nbsp; verbatim i.e. without getting interpreted it as an HTML code?
    A: The HTML code can be broken by inserting another HTML code inside the &‍nbsp; , namely, the &‍zwj; -- the zero width joiner -- e.g. this way:
    You write: You get:
    &&‍zwj;nbsp; &‍nbsp;
    __&&‍zwj;nbsp;__ &‍nbsp;
    ‍=&&‍zwj;nbsp;=‍ &‍nbsp;

    another use case
    of breaking TWIKI code ‍== :
    ‍=&‍zwj;=A== ‍=A=
    ‍=&‍zwj;==A=== ‍==A==
    to be compared with
    ‍==A== A
    ‍===A=== =A=

    also breaking brackets:
    x<‍&‍zwj;something>y x<‍something>y
    to be compared with
    x<‍something>y xy

  wget a twiki page with all the attachments

  • An example:
    chmod -w
    wget -r -l 1 -k     -I /twiki/pub/Main/AVFedotovHowToDom3/,twiki/pub/TWiki \


  Acrobat Reader

    Deinstallation of Acrobat Reader on Linux @ DESY

  • Date: Fri, 23 May 2014 15:18:01 +0200
    From: UCO DESY Hamburg <>
    Subject: [desy-computing] IT-News: Deinstallation Acrobat Reader auf Linux - Neues Ubuntu-System paul / Deinstallation Acrobat Reader on Linux - New Ubuntu System paul

    Due to the fact that the Acrobat Reader for Linux platforms is no longer supported by the manufacturer Adobe and therefore the usage is a security risk, we will deinstall the application on all Linux systems.

    This means that the Acrobat Reader will no longer be available on Linux Systems at DESY.

    Therefore an Ubuntu system has been added to the PAL (Public Access Linux) cluster: (Public Access Ubuntu Linux).

    The key aspect of PAUL is the availability of a newer Linux distribution with up-to-date software, especially of the themes Office applications and PDF editing.

    Due to the fact that up-to-date Linux PDF viewers like Evince and Okular are installed on PAUL, alternatives to the Adobe Acrobat Reader as well as to relatively old installations of Evince and Okular on e.g. SL5 and SL6, are available.

    The usage of PAUL for editing PDF documents which are located in the AFS can be carried out from an older Linux installation e.g. with the following command:
               ssh -X paul evince /afs/path/to/document.pdf

    More information about the PAL cluster can be found at


see special section


    jpg to a smaller size

Here is an example to convert all the jpg files in the current directory to the "size = 1272 pixels".
Note that 1272 is the maximum of the vertical/horizontal sizes: the second size 954 is not specified inside the convert command. It is obtained automatically by the convert by keeping the aspect ratio (4/3) of the original files.

for i in *.jpg
  do convert -size 1272x1272 $i -resize 1272x1272 +profile "*" $i.1272x954.jpg
  rename jpg.1272x954 1272x954 $i.1272x954.jpg

And the same but:

  • putting the converted files into the subdirectory dir1272x1272/
  • also transferring the camera information record (so called Exif ) via jhead ...
ss=1272x1272; suff=1272x954
# ss=800x800; suff=800x600
# ss=600x600; suff=600x450
[ -e $dir ] || mkdir $dir
for i in *.jpg
  convert -size $ss $i -resize $ss +profile "*" $new
  jhead -te $i $new
  rename jpg.$suff $suff $new


see special section

  LVM -- Logical Volume Management

    Extending Swap on an LVM2 Logical Volume

  • The procedure copied from
    • To extend an LVM2 swap logical volume (assuming /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01 is the volume you want to extend):
      1. Disable swapping for the associated logical volume:
        # swapoff -v /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01
      2. Resize the LVM2 logical volume by 256 MB:
        # lvm lvresize /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01 -L +256M
      3. Format the new swap space:
        # mkswap /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01
      4. Enable the extended logical volume:
        # swapon -va
      5. Test that the logical volume has been extended properly:
        # cat /proc/swaps
        # free -b

    RAM-disk creation in linux



  • sudo command
    • allows a user to run the command as root (this is just one of the numerous options of the sudo usage)
  • in order to authorise the user user1 to run the sudo, e.g. the following line can be inserted into the file /etc/sudoers
    • user1   ALL=(ALL)    ALL
      which would allow the user user1 to run any commands anywhere
    • note that sudo requires that the access rights of the file /etc/sudoers are 440 (i.e. -r--r-----)
  • At the first run of the sudo, the authenticated user is prompted for his/her password. During next 5 minutes (a default setting) the password is not required.


see special section

  text tools

  utilities: a list of


    DELETE key produces tilde in xterm

    history configuration

  • the history was not stored on slc6 lxplus machines until we added the line export SAVEHIST=$HISTSIZE to the ~/.zprofile file:
    export HISTSIZE=2000 
    export HISTFILE=$HOME/.history.${}
    following an advice from Zsh/HOWTO -- Configuration/History

Topic attachments
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