NEW in 2019

Everything is stable. No new elements have been introduced... besides the use of VidyoConnect instead of VidyoDesktop. Updated instructions in the relevant sections!

NEW in 2018

There is one improvement: To streamline the discussion of measurements sets of questions have been developed which should be used by the moderators. There are 5 scenarios for ATLAS and CMS measurements. Each scenario consists of a plot or table and relevant question(s) that students are supposed to answer. The scenarios can be found in the section Physics Discussion of the Measurement


This page provides information for moderators concerning the video conference for the 2019 International Masterclasses. It is based on the Masterclasses Video Conference Manual. Talks covering the various topics were presented in the moderator orientation.

Video Conference General Information

Date and Time

The 2019 International Masterclasses will run from Thursday 7th March until Tuesday 16th April. Two satellite events are scheduled for 25th and 26th February. The Masterclass schedule for the institutes can be found here. Please check which video conference you have signed up for, which date and important: VC1 or VC2. The Video Conference starts at 16:00 and ends at 17:00 the latest. These are strict time limits. Please arrive 20 minutes before the start of your video conference to set up, sound check, and be ready to start at 16:00.


Pay attention to which video conference you are moderating as two might be going on at the same time.

  • Location VC 1 - Education Dep. (building 33-R-016) (map)
    • The key is stored in an envelope “MASTERCLASSES” in the mailbox in front of Maureens´ office (33-R-030), opposite of 33-R-016. It has to be returned there!
    • Contact Person: Maureen Prola-Tessaur: 72775 internal
  • Location VC 2 - 31-S-027 (map)
      • Note that this room can be tricky to find! From the entrance hall of building 31 (IT building) you need to go down one floor (cellar of the building), then you have to pass a door which leads to some small meeting rooms, among them you'll find 31-S-027.
      • The room has an electronic lock, you need your CERN access card to open and close the lock. Before that, you need to validate your access card at a validation station in the entrance hall of building 31. Validation is rather easy, just put your card next to the station and wait for green light (after a few seconds). Validation is valid for 30 days, so if one has a VC just at the very beginning and at the very end of the Masterclasses, the validation might need to be renewed.

Setting up VC meeting rooms and Starting the VC

Full information on how to use Vidyo is found in the Masterclasses Video Conference Manual. You can find the correct Vidyo room for your masterclass from the schedule. For vidyo support don´t hesitate to call 78888! They are always happy to help!

In each of the rooms, this page is bookmarked in Internet Explorer. The quiz should be available on the desktop, but if not then can be downloaded from here.

VC1 (33-R-016 map)

You have three remote controls:

  • White EPSON: projector (EP)
  • Black SAMSUNG: Monitor (SM)
  • Grey TANDBERG: Video Conference (TB)

Turn everything on that is not on,

  • EP - Power ON
  • SM - Power ON. Press middle circle (with square and arrow) to select PC (if this does not work try SOURCE)
  • TB - Press OK to wake unit
  • Tap Keyboard. You should see the PC on the projector screen.

Video Conference

  • Start VidyoConnect from task bar. Enter the login details (username = mcmod1, password = mod1mc)
  • Select Masterclasses_2019_VC1 and join.
  • Connect the ROOM
    • Click on the icon “Participants and Search” (top left hand side)
    • Click on the icon “Moderate Call” (bottom)
    • Click on the icon "Add Participant" (left hand), in the box type "room_cern_33-R-016", click “invite”
  • If need be, use the arrow buttons and zoom +/- buttons on the TB remote to get a nicely framed video projection of yourselves and the back.
  • The table top microphone shows a red light when on. (No light = off). If it is muted, you have to press the button on the microphone.

To share the desktop (map or combination)

  • In VidyoConnect, choose “Share applications” (bottom, 3rd icon from right)
  • Choose “Share”. Then, choose application from menu left, and then the appropriate window from menu right. Finally, click the purple icon “Share”!
  • To stop sharing, click the red button (monitor with “x”, top right)

To share the animated quiz in full screen

  • Open the pptx and start the slide show (e.g. press "F5")
  • Hold "Alt" key and press "Tab" key (several times) to switch along the open windows to the VidyoConnect window
  • In VidyoConnect, choose “Share applications” (bottom, 3rd icon from right)
  • Choose “Share”, then choose “POWERPNT” from menu left, and then “PowerPoint Slide Show” from menu right. Finally, click the purple icon “Share”.
  • To stop sharing, click the red button (monitor with “x”, top right)

When the Masterclass has finished

  • Use the control panel (in the browser) to disconnect the room and the mc moderator user.
  • In the VidyoConnect window, click on the icon top right hand side and sign out.
  • Close the browser windows.
  • Turn off the Tandberg by pressing twice the red hang-up/power button on the TB remote. Turn off the monitor by pressing the power button on the SM remote, and turn off the projector by pressing the power button on the EP remote twice.

VC2 (31-S-027 map)

  • Press "ON" on the control panel on the table. This will wake the projector.
  • Press "Video Conf" on the control panel on the table.
  • Tap Keyboard. You should see the PC on the Screen. The LCD screen wakes up as well.

Video Conference

  • Start VidyoConnect. Enter the login details (username = mcmod2, password = mod2mc)
  • Select Masterclasses_2019_VC2 room and join.
  • Connect the ROOM
    • Click on the icon “Participants and Search” (top left hand side)
    • Click on the icon “Moderate Call” (bottom)
    • Click on the icon "Add Participant" (left hand), in the box type "VidyoRoom 31-S-027", click “invite”
  • If need be, use the arrow buttons and zoom +/- buttons on the remote to get a nicely framed video projection of yourselves.
  • Press the button on the round tabletop microphone to mute/unmute (red/green). Green light = on!

To share the physics results or/and the animated quiz

  • Open the results page. Or open the pptx and start the slide show (e.g. press F5)
  • In VidyoConnect, choose “Share applications” (bottom, 3rd icon from right)
  • Then, choose “POWERPNT” from menu left, and then “PowerPoint Slide Show” from menu right. Finally, click the purple icon “Share”.
  • On the big screen (projector), you have to start the slide show once again (F5)!
  • To play the quiz, use the arrow keys on the keyboard or the mouse.
  • To stop sharing, click the red button (monitor with “x”, top right)

When the Masterclass has finished

  • Use the control panel (in the browser) to disconnect the room and the mc moderator user.
  • In the VidyoConnect window, click on the icon top right hand side and sign out.
  • Close the browser windows.
  • On the control panel on the table, press "LCD off" and "Display off".

Trouble shooting

  • It happened once that the room microphones were OFF when moderators arrived; they found out that there is a switch for that in the base of the TV which is visible only from behind it and which needs to have all lights green for the system to be setup. So in case one can not switch on the microphone on the table, one has to look behind the TV screen and switch on the relevant button.
  • If you have echo problems: Make sure that speaker/mic/camera are muted on the VidyoConnect tool bar client_toolbar.jpg to avoid an audio loop.

Timeline of the video conference


  • 16:00 - 16:10 Welcome & icebreaker (10')
  • 16:10 - 16:30 Combination & discussion of measurement (20')
  • 16:30 - 16:50 Open discussion (20')
  • 16:50 - 17:00 Quiz (10')
  • 17:00 Good Bye (01')

Preparation for the video conference

Arrive 30 minutes before the start of your video conference and prepare/upload all the material, including:

Make sure you have downloaded what you need onto the desktop (quiz and map), you are able to access the tables and results, you know how to share these on vidyo, especially the animated quiz!

Masterclass map

At the beginning of the Masterclass during the welcome display a map showing all connecting sites. It should be used to explain to the institutes in which order you will look at their results (e.g. north to south or alphabetical order or similar), to give some more structure to this procedure. The Masterclass organisers will produce a map for each video conference that can be downloaded from the bottom of this page (attachments). Click on the right map for your masterclass and download it to your desktop. Make sure you know what it is called and you are using Vidyo to 'share' this so all the institutes can see it.

Table/website for combination of results

The results page must be put onto the shared desktop, these can be found here:

Animated quiz

The quiz must be ready to be shown on the shared desktop (might already be there) and can be downloaded from here. This must be played as a slide show so you must click the mouse to go through it. Please have a practice going through the quiz before your first video conference so that you know the speed and understand each answer. The answer sheet is here if you wish to take a look.

The quiz is already downloaded on the desktop. For instructions on how to share the quiz in full screen/slide show mode, see the section "Setting up VC meeting rooms and Starting the VC" above.

Student fill out answer sheets, and institutes might present the questions in their local language in addition to your slide show.

Question 7: Correct answer is up-Quark. The average human body (70 kg) mainly consists of:

  • 44 kg Oxygen
  • 14 kg Carbon
  • 7 kg Hydrogen
For each Oxygen and Carbon atom: u=d, as they have the same number of protons and neutrons (let´s not talk about C13, C14, O18...). Each Hydrogen atom has 2u and 1d. 7 kg of Hydrogen = 7000 mol, that means a huge number of atoms. Iron or Potassium atoms for example have more neutrons than protons, but they are far less abundant. The human body contains 170 g Potassium (4,3 mol) and 3 g Iron (0,05 mol). This can not compensate for the over-abundance of up-Quarks from Hydrogen.

Ideas for welcome questions

During the welcome ask one short question to each masterclass. Some ideas are here.

Discussion of measurement with students

This is an important point: Students have already discussed their results on a local level. Now you should discuss the combined results and ask a question to each group to foster conversation and discussion. Questions are listed below.

Physics Discussion of the Measurement

ATLAS Z path

Questions (for 5 groups)

For each question, show the plot indicated above the question.


  • Question 1: What does it mean when we see a peak in the distribution? Do you see any peaks that you did not expect?


  • Question 2: Do you see a peak corresponding to the Higgs boson? Why not? (Hopefully students are aware of statistics limitations from local institute discussions.)


  • Question 3: Do you think we could see the peak here even if it had the same color as the background? Why does it help to collect more data?


  • Question 4: Why are there many more 4-lepton events than expected? (Here you can compare to the table in the summary screen or to the expected distribution.) What can you say about the composition in terms of 4e, 2e2µ, and 4µ?


  • Question 5: What does it tell us that the particle at 1000 GeV is not seen in the 4-lepton and diphoton distributions, while the particle at 1500 GeV is seen in all distributions?

Miscellaneous questions for discussion

di-lepton measurement: Compare the histograms of the electron-positron and muon-antimuon pairs.

  • Can you point out differences/similarities?
  • How often does the Z boson decay into electron-positron pairs? How often does the decay result in muon-antimuon pairs?
  • What did you expect? Why?
  • Do you notice any other particles? At which invariant masses?
  • What is the most probable mass of the Z boson?
  • Why is there not one exact value for the Z boson mass?
  • What could be the possible explanations of why the distribution is so wide?
  • Have you discovered the Z' boson?
  • If you think so, what is the Z' boson's mass?
  • Have you discovered the Graviton?
  • If you think so, what is the Graviton mass?
  • Why is it useful to combine your results with those obtained by other groups?

di-photon measurement

  • Do you see any sign of Higgs decaying to 2 photons, H→γγ?
  • If not, what could be the reasons?
  • In fact the full sample does contain real Higgs candidates, even if you have not found them!
  • Any sign of the Z’ boson or Graviton?
  • Why/why not?

4-lepton measurement

  • Do you see any sign of Higgs decaying to 4 leptons, H→ZZ→llll?
  • If not, what could be the reasons?
  • In fact the whole sample contains Higgs candidates. At which mass?
  • Any sign of the Z’ boson or Graviton?
  • Why/why not?

General information on ATLAS Z path

  • See moderators-document for description: PDF, or DOC.

  • A great animation for the evolution of the Higgs->gammagamma signal and for the Higgs->ZZ. These demonstartions can help with explaining to students who claim they have discoverd the Higgs, that they probably will need more statistics.

ATLAS W-path

Questions (for 5 groups)

Show combined table

  • Question 1: What was your result for R±? How did the combination with the other institutes change the total result?

  • Question 2: Is the result compatible with the results measured in ATLAS?

Show histogram from the second drop-down menu - sample plot:

  • Question 3: You have measured the angle between two leptons. Let´s have a look at that. What exactly do the black data points mean?

  • Question 4: How would you interpret the blue and green areas? What do they mean?

Show the Higgs contribution (red) by checking into the appropriate checkbox and click on "submit".

  • Question 5: Can we disclaim a Higgs discovery? What would be necessary to disclaim a discovery?

For advanced discussions

General information on ATLAS W path

Students´ tasks include:
  • Explore the structure of the proton by counting the number of W+ and W- events in W candidate events: Students identify W candidate events, decay products and (if possible) their electric charge, calculate ratio R±
  • Search for the Higgs in l+νl-ν + 0,1 Jets final state (1000 real data events containing l+νl-ν + 0,1 Jets were mixed with a selection of 11000 real data events from 2011 (W candidate events and background). Students identify WW candidate events and measure the opening angle Δφll between both electrically charged leptons in transverse plane.


Questions (for 5 groups)

You, the moderators will:
  • Go to the CIMA admin pages. (Login/Password = Admin/Cima4CMS.)
  • Choose the date under Masterclasses and then go to the Results button.

  • Share with students: Combined Mass Histogram (Overall mass histogram)


  • Question 1: Where are the peaks in the Mass Histogram? What do they represent?
  • Question 2: Where is Z boson in the plot? What are the other peaks, then?
  • Question 3: Do you have possible Higgs events in the plot? Where? Can we claim discovery?

  • Share with students: Combined Results (Overall e/nu and W+/W- results)


  • Question 4: What do you expect the ratio of electron events to muon events to be? Is your result consistent with this?
  • Question 5: What is the ratio of W+ to W- bosons? What does this ratio tell us about protons?

For advanced discussions

  • At the top of the page there is a down arrow next to "All". Choose this.
  • A drop-down menu appears. This drop-down menu allows the moderators to switch between single-location and combined results without going back to the admin page. This works for the mass histogram and the result summary.
  • Why are the widths or heights or numbers of peaks different from one Institute to the next?
  • Why do different Institutes get different ratios? How did they identify electrons or muons or W candidates or Z candidates or zoo events? How did they measure charge for W candidates?

General information on CMS measurement

An introduction to the CMS measurement can be found here. The topic of the Measurement is W and Z bosons with additional particles to be found and studied. Students will use iSpy-webgl and CIMA to find/create:

  • Ratios e/mu and W+/W-
  • Mass of Z from plot
  • J/Psi and Y peaks in Z mass plot
  • Higgs signal in mass plot.
Key Activites of Students, Mentors, and Moderators Students will:
  • Distinguish W from Z boson candidates from event displays
  • Find rare Higgs candidates from 4-lepton and diphoton events
  • Use curvature of lepton tracks to distinguish W+ from W-
  • Distinguish electron from muon events
  • Transfer the following data to mentors: Numbers of electron and muon events, Numbers of W+ and W- candidates, Invariant masses (from spreadsheet) of Z and H candidates
Mentors (or their assistants) at the institutes will:
  • Show students Institute result for ratios e/nu and W+/W-, discuss significance (find in CIMA student pages)
  • Show the mass plot of Z and H candidates in CIMA (find in CIMA student pages)
  • Discuss mass plot with students (Z peak and width, J/Psi and Y peaks, small H signal, sources of uncertainty, noise)
  • Numbers of electron and muon events, Numbers of W+ and W- candidates, ratios, and Mass plot will be visible to moderators in CIMA.

For more detailed instructions, see:

Here are some keywords and phrases for the discussion with the students:

Mass plot

  • Peak
  • Width
  • Resonance
  • Noise
  • Bin width
  • Zoo
  • What’s that?
  • Detector performance
  • Selection criteria
  • Expected/Unexpected
  • Uncertainty
  • Discovery

ALICE - Looking for strange particles

Questions (for 5 groups)

  • Why are the two tracks of each V0 curved in opposite directions?
  • Why is the radius of curvature of the proton bigger than that of the pion in Λ decays?
  • Why don’t you see the Λ or the K0 before their decay?
  • Why does the Λ not decay to two pions, like the K0?
  • Why does the invariant mass have a width and is not a delta­function?

General information on ALICE - Looking for strange particles

This document can also be found at

Topic of the measurement

• Identify strange particles (V0s : Ks, Λ, anti-Λ) from their decay pattern, combined with calculation of their invariant mass.

• Find number of Ks, Λ, anti-Λ for different centrality regions for lead-lead data.

• Calculate yields for Ks, Λ, anti-Λ and strangeness enhancement factors by comparing to proton-proton data.

What the students do in each institute

Visual analysis

Using a simplified version of the ALICE event display based on ROOT, they identify and classify strange particles (V0s : Ks, Λ, anti-Λ) from their decay pattern, combined with invariant mass calculation. Each group of 2 or 3 students looks at 15 events.

At the end of this first part, the tutor merges the results of all groups and produces invariant mass plots for Ks, Λ, anti-Λ.

They can give the mass values and width of the peaks.

Large scale analysis - Find V0s in different centrality regions in PbPb collisions

Students analyse large datasets, by running a programme that selects V0s, calculates the invariant mass and produces an invariant mass plot; each group of 2 or 3 students is assigned a centrality region and they have to find the number of Ks, Λ, anti-Λ in this region. To do this, they have to fit curves to the combinatorial background (2nd degree polynomial) and the peak (Gaussian) and subtract.

Calculation of particle yields and strangeness enhancement factors Each group reports the number of Ks, Λ, anti-Λ they found in the centrality class that they have analysed. The results for the whole class are entered in a spreadsheet as the following

The number of events in each centrality region is given in the spreadsheet.

The number of participating nucleons in the collision, Npart, which is correlated with the centrality, is also given in the table for each centrality class.

The number of particles measured is less than the number of particles produced; to find the latter we need to take into account the efficiency; efficiency values, for Ks, Λ and anti-Λ, have been estimated and are given in the table.

In the spreadsheet, there are embedded formulas to calculate:

Yield : the number of particles (of a certain type) produced per interaction = Nparticles(produced)/Nevents = Nparticles(measured)/(efficiency x Nevents)

Strangeness enhancement: the particle yield normalised by the number of participating nucleons in the collision, and properly normalised by the yield in proton-proton collisions at the same collision energy.

Ks-Yield(pp) = 0.25 /interaction Λ-Yield(pp) = 0.0615 /interaction ; the same for anti-Λ = 2 for pp

NOTE: the above yields for Ks and Λ refer to proton-proton collisions at 2.76 TeV (same energy as for Pb-Pb collisions, 2.76 TeV per nucleon pair); they have been calculated by interpolation, between measured Ks and Λ yields at 900 GeV and 7 TeV [internal ALICE notes].

With all this information a spreadsheet like the following is produced with the information for Ks, Λ and anti-Λ.


Embedded in the spreadsheet is a scatter plot, showing the enhancement factors for Ks, Λ and anti- Λ versus the number of participants.


The results of all institutes can be accessed at should be accessible with no need to login, in a folder at the url

Inside this folder, there is an example spreadsheet, results-example.xls

Each institute fills in a spreadsheet with the name results-inst_name-xxxxxx.xls ( inst_name is the name of the institute, e.g. CERN, Nantes, Heidelberg… xxxxxx is the date, e.g. 03032015)

DISCLAIMER : The results in this example – and the results produced by this analysis – are based on a small dataset selected for this measurement and on a number of assumptions and simplifications; therefore they may differ from official ALICE results.

Institutes’ report and comments

Starting from 2017 the institutes no longer give a report of the results during the videoconference. This new concept was introduced because it was considered too repetitive reporting basically the same things up to five times.

By going to the google docs folder as described in the previous section, the moderator should bring to the screen and show the spreadsheet with the institute’s results, including scatter plot. He 'she can comment. Possible comments :

The number of Ks, Lambda and antiLambda (and the calculated yield) is higher for more central collisions. This is normal since, in the most central ones, up to ~400 nuclei in total interact, which results in thousands of particles produced per collision.

Strangeness enhancement is observed (ratio >1). Ratio=1 would mean that there is no difference between collisions of nucleons of the lead nuclei and collisions of protons.

Show ALICE results.


The students have only measured Λ (1 strange quark); Their measurement is in agreement with the ALICE results, within errors. (In addition, assumptions were made about the efficiency – real life analysis takes much longer – things were simplified here to complete the measurement).

The other particles shown on the plot have higher content of s-quarks: the Ξ has 2, the Ω 3. Strangeness enhancement increases with the number of strange quarks in the baryon. Note

If there is a problem with accessing google docs, the institutes can use excel spreadsheets with embedded scatter plots on their local computer. They can then show them by screen sharing.

Additional information can be found at the URL

the text describing the measurement also “Instructions to the Institutes”

Temperature Calculation

An additional comment can be made by the moderators on the calculation of temperature from particle ratios, along the lines:

Our observation of the number of produced Lambdas and Kaons can serve as a thermometer of the matter which is produced in the collision.

If you had measured Lambdas + Anti_Lambdas and K0s per event in the 0-5% centrality Pb-Pb events and then corrected for detection efficiency (pt-integrated), you would have obtained the following values (preliminary ALICE analysis results, not yet published):

NK0s = 123.9 ± 7 (which is the dN/dy per event) NΛ = 28.8 ± 3

We then put the NK0s in relation with the number of produced pions per event. The following value has been measured for the 0-5% centrality Pb-Pb event

Nπ+ = 792.1 ± 44.1

We form the ratio and obtain

NK0s / Nπ+ = 0.156 ± 0.012 NΛ / Nπ+ = 0.036 ± 0.004

From the plot below we can then roughly judge at which temperatures the particles were produced:


The curves are produced with a so-called thermal model. It relates the relative abundance of particles with the temperatures in the fireball. Very roughly speaking, it shows that the production of particle of mass mi is proportional to ~ exp(-mi/T). We can see this also in the plot showing that the heavier lambdas are produced less often than the lighter kaons. Thus, our observation of the number of produced Lambdas and Kaons can serve as a thermometer of the matter which is produced in the collision. Our results show that the temperature of the fireball is somewhere between 120 MeV and 180 MeV corresponding to roughly 1.74×1012 K (compared to 5.778 K on the surface of the sun -- factor 1 billion). Within 2σ the two ratios are even in agreement with a single temperature.

  • ALICE published results on strangeness enhancement:


Questions (for 5 groups)

  • Visual analysis: where do the clusters come from that are not associated with a reconstructed track?
  • Visual analysis: did you observe more positively or negatively charged particle tracks? Why is this so?
  • Visual analysis: why do most of the produced particles have low momenta?
  • What is a reconstruction efficiency and why is it important?
  • What is the difference between R_CP and R_AA?
  • Why is R_AA < 1 consistent with energy loss in a quark-gluon plasma?

General information on ALICE R_AA measurement

For a description see the manual of the measurement: PDF. Further information can be found in the guide for tutors and the moderators' manual.

Social Media


Please tweet about the Masterclasses! Use the hashtag #LHCIMC


Do interact with the masterclass facebook page. Post anything of interest during or after the video conference, for example maybe the combination gave an interesting result, or you were asked an interesting/difficult/unusual question, or if you want to share a link to help answer a student's question, post it all on the facebook page, and encourage the students to take a look and post too.

-- KateShaw -17-Feb-2013

-- KateShaw - 01-Nov-2011

Twiki Settings

Set ALLOWTOPICVIEW = ippog-masterclass-admin, ippog-masterclass-moderators, ippog-masterclass-authors Set ALLOWTOPICCHANGE = ippog-masterclass-admin, ippog-masterclass-moderators, ippog-masterclass-authors

Topic attachments
I Attachment History Action Size Date Who Comment
PDFpdf List_of_welcome_questions.pdf r1 manage 15.6 K 2012-02-20 - 23:46 UtaBilow  
PNGpng VCTimeline_new.png r1 manage 49.5 K 2017-02-07 - 19:45 KatharineLeney Timeline image
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PNGpng combination_gg.png r1 manage 53.1 K 2018-02-05 - 15:31 MagnarBugge  
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PNGpng combination_highMass.png r1 manage 71.2 K 2018-02-05 - 15:31 MagnarBugge  
PNGpng combination_ll.png r1 manage 55.6 K 2018-02-05 - 15:31 MagnarBugge  
PDFpdf manual_moderators_2019_03_05.pdf r2 r1 manage 3609.6 K 2019-03-06 - 13:46 UtaBilow manual
JPEGjpg map20190415_VC2.jpg r1 manage 815.0 K 2019-04-15 - 09:01 UtaBilow map
JPEGjpg map20190416_VC1.jpg r1 manage 803.8 K 2019-04-15 - 09:01 UtaBilow map
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Unknown file formatpptx pres-women-in-physics.pptx r2 r1 manage 2522.7 K 2019-02-11 - 15:30 UtaBilow  
Unknown file formatpptx quiz-2017-en.pptx r2 r1 manage 14215.1 K 2017-01-31 - 15:48 UtaBilow quiz
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