HCALRadiationProject



Information

The objective of this project is to estimate radiation levels in the front-end electronics of HCAL, in particular Total Ionizing Dose, and fluence of neutrons and charged hadrons as a function of their energy. The granularity of the energy spectrum does not have to be very fine. The priority is the HCAL Forward (HF).

A second goal is to study the activation of the material around the electronics, in order to predict the radiation also when the particle beam is not present (suggestion: configure an irradiation profile in Fluka). Simulations will be made using FLUKA/FLAIR software.

The HF electronics is contained in racks, four racks on the Plus side and four racks on the Minus side. The centers of the HF rack volumes are at the following locations relative to IP: Upper racks X= +/-2.50m Y=1.70m Z=+/-13.75m. Lower racks X=+/-2.50m Y=-0.51m Z=+/-13.21m

The locations of the centers of the lowest possible 1U panels are: Upper racks X=+/-2.50m Y=1.24m Z=+/-13.51m Lower racks X=+/-2.50m Y=-0.81m Z=+/-14.05m

The height of the racks is: Upper racks 41U = 1.822 m. Lower racks 34U = 1.511 m

Picture of four racks positioned around one side of HF

When HF is at nominal position with CMS closed for beam: the HF racks are oriented with the front-side to which normal crates and panels are secured, in the XY plane, facing away from IP (obvious in pictures). FEE boards are therefore oriented in ZY. HF crates have their open side in the XY plane facing away from IP; all other sides are metal plates (about 1cm-thick). We want a model of the real situation, you can see electronics inside the racks in the next picture.

Electronics inside the racks

People:

Developed by Pablo Jacome and Daniel Guerrero under the supervision and collaboration of Francisco Yumiceva, Edgar Carrera, Tullio Grassi, Moritz Guthoff.

Read and Learn about FLUKA

We start working in learning how FLUKA works. If you want to start in this kind of simulations you can read about FLUKA here: https://www.fluka.org/fluka.php?id=secured_intro. FLUKA has an graphic interface named FLAIR, where is easier the editing of FLUKA input files, execution of the code and visualization of the output files, http://www.fluka.org/flair/index.html.

Fortunately FLUKA has an interface. So you can start watching tutorials of how to make geometries in FLAIR. In youtube exists a channel where you can follow videos and learn! Watch them, it will be very useful. http://www.youtube.com/user/Flair4Fluka.

Install FLUKA and its graphic interface FLAIR on UBUNTU 12.04 32 bits

  • June/25/2012: CHANGING THE COMPILER TO g77
  • Due to problems in linking the object files of user routines using gfortran, and because reading many ubuntu references about this issue, I decided to change the compiler to g77.
  • For future references here's a complete guide to install FLUKA/FLAIR from zero.
INSTALLING FLUKA/FLAIR ON UBUNTU 12.04 32bits USING "g77" AS FORTRAN COMPILER (recommended)
  • Open a terminal.
  • Edit the repositories list (This is because Ubuntu 12.04 does not have g77 on its repositories, but Ubuntu 8.04):
  • Update the list and install g77 compiler:
    • $ sudo apt-get update
    • $ sudo apt-get install g77
  • I suggest to comment or delete the lines added in /etc/apt/sources.list and then updating the sources list again:

    • $ sudo apt-get update
  • Download RPM packages from: www.fluka.org . Change .rpm files to *.deb and install it: *(Thanks to Andrés Sevilla Moreno for making me notice to add a pair of code lines for installing FLAIR and GEOVIEWER dependencies)
    • $ sudo apt-get install alien
    • $ sudo alien -d fluka-2011.2-13.i686.rpm
    • $ sudo dpkg -i fluka_2011.2-14_i386.deb
    • $ sudo apt-get install python tk tcl gnuplot python-tk
    • $ sudo alien --scripts -d flair-1.0-0.noarch.rpm
    • $ sudo dpkg -i flair_1.0-1_all.deb
    • $ sudo apt-get install tk-dev tcl-dev python-dev python-imaging python-imaging-tk
    • $ sudo alien flair-geoviewer-1.0-0.i386.rpm
    • $ sudo dpkg -i flair-geoviewer_1.0-1_i386.deb
  • Set an enviroment variable required:
    • $ sudo nano /etc/environment
    • Go to last line and type:
      • FLUFOR="g77"
    • Save, exit and restart the system.
  • Now, if you open a FLAIR project and try to BUILD user routines, you will get some erros in console:
    • " [[: not found " , is because the script /fluka/flutil/fff uses "sh" as script interpreter and does not support double bracket in if condition. To solve this change "sh" to "bash" in the first line of the script: * $ sudo nano /usr/local/fluka/flutil/fff * Change the line #!/bin/sh to #!/bin/bash * Save the file and exit * "/usr/bin/ld: cannot find crt1.o: No such file or directory", the linker can not find some libraries, To fix it: * Find the directory where the library is: * $ sudo locate crt1.o * $ sudo locate crti.o * $ sudo locate crtn.o * Create a soft link of these files in /usr/lib/ directory in order to the linker is able to find it: * $ sudo ln -s /usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/crt1.o /usr/lib/crt1.o * $ sudo ln -s /usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/crti.o /usr/lib/crti.o * $ sudo ln -s /usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/crtn.o /usr/lib/crtn.o * "/usr/bin/ld: cannot find -lgcc_s", * Find the directory where the library is: * $ sudo locate gcc_s * If you have many (i386, i486, i686,..), select the appropriate one for your compiler and create a soft link: * $ sudo ln -s /lib/i386-linux-gnu/libgcc_s.so.1 /usr/lib/libgcc_s.so * Have fun! ---+++ Install FLUKA and its graphic interface FLAIR on UBUNTU 12.04 64 bits * In essence the procedure is the same as in 32 bits, except that instead of g77 we use gfortran, which is the default fortran compiler. * Unfortunately some parts of the installation scripts are broken under the new 12.X ubuntu releases, so we need to apply some brute force. * After setting the FLUPRO and FLUFOR variables as described in the instructions, one needs to do two fundamental changes: (a) change the link /bin/sh to /bin/bash instead of /bin/dash, and (b) add some lines to futil/ffluka.sh script. The first one is easy and prevents all fluka scripts, which call shell sh, from collapsing (dash has slightly different syntax). * The second is also easy. Just add the following lines:
      FLUFOR="gfortran" FLUARCH="64"
      right before this line:
      # echo \$FLUARCH = $FLUARCH
      in the futil/ffluka.sh script. Then compile, it should go smooth. * The installation of flair goes smoothly following similar instructions as above (installing flair and geoviewer for 32 bits) but "aliening" the correct versions for 64 bits. ---+++ Making CMSpp binary files * June/21/2012: COMPILING CMS USER ROUTINES
      * Trying to compile user routines (e.g. fieldi.f) which came with the CMS geometry files that you can find here: https://twiki.cern.ch/twiki/pub/Sandbox/HCALRadiationProject/CMS_simulation.tar.gz
      , two error messages appeared in the console of FLAIR:
error compiling with fff
  • The first one, " [[: not found " , is because the script /fluka/flutil/fff uses "sh" as script interpreter and does not support double bracket in if condition. To solve this change "sh" to "bash" in the first line of the script:
    • $ sudo nano /usr/local/fluka/flutil/fff
    • Change the line #!/bin/sh to #!/bin/bash
    • Save the file and exit ( CTRL+O and CTRL+X )
* The second error, "g77: not found", is because FLAIR needs an environment variable called FLUFOR wich contains the name of the fortran complier. g77 is a fortran compiler that is not available in ubuntu 12.04, but you can use gfortran instead. To create an environment variable for all the system: * $ sudo nano /etc/environment * Add this at the end of the file: * FLUFOR="gfortran" * Save and exit. * Restart the system. * When you compile a .f file you should see no errors in the console and objects (.o) files are created. * Now, it's time to BUILD all the user routines, this means to link all the object files, by following: Process -> Compile -> Build. Unfortunately many "undefined reference to ..." messages appear. ---+++ Basics * June/18/2012 to June/20/2012: EXPLORING THE CMS GEOMETRY
* Moritz Guthoff has sent the CMS geometry with some user routine files included. * Here is a picture of the project opened in FLAIR.
CMS geometry read in FLAIR
* There is no erros in the geometry. * I got few doubts: * What is the position of the electronics that we are interested? * It seems to be just a half of all the CMS detector. Do we need to join the two halves? * FLAIR project general information shows the name of a executable file: * * Should we create it? (Maybe there is someone who has it) * June/11/2012 to June/15/2012: LEARNING THE BASICS OF FLUKA
* I read the manual and found a simple example with its explanation. It is useful for knowing the basic parts of an input file, how to run it, and what are the expected output files. You may check chapter 2 of the on-line manual "2 A FLUKA beginner's guide". But you can avoid to make this example since there is a Flair Quick Start Guide http://www.fluka.org/flair/doc.html , where you learn how to create a project, similar as FLUKA beginner's guide, but in a graphical enviroment. * Here is a picture of the geometry created in FLAIR. It shows the views of a lead target in a water container:
geometry-flair-example
* The following picture represents the deposited energy near the target area:
plot-example
---+++ Learning the required scorings To accelerate the learning process of FLUKA's scoring a very simplified geometry, using 4TeV pp collisions, was made to avoid long wating times for each simulation cycle. The files used for learning scoring are in : https://twiki.cern.ch/twiki/pub/Sandbox/HCALRadiationProject/Very_simplified_CMS.zip , unzip them and open the .flair file.

Please follow the following steps to learn and look the required scorings for this project:

1. Go to left side bar, click on Fluka / Input / Scoring , now, you must see the definition of the required detectors.

scorings.png

2. Go to left side bar, click on Fluka / Process / Run , Click on Run button (Since this run is just for learning you may set 1 cycle insted of 5). Wait for succeed.

3. Now it is time to process the data, go to the left side bar and click to Fluka / Process / Data , look that all the files in the Usrxxx window are selected, and then click on Process button

process.png

4. To look at the content of the output files, go to left side bar, click on Fluka / Process / Files and on the "Cycles" window select the option "data". Now, in the bottom window you must see all the output files.

4.1. Exploring the output of dose scoring: Because USRBIN card with unformatted output doesn't provide readable information you need to convert the binary output file to ASCii files. Select both files : CMSpp_usrbin_21 and CMSpp_usrbin_22, then right-click and select: To ascii . Two new files have been created : CMSpp_usrbin_21.lis and CMSpp_usrbin_22.lis, To explore the files, select both *.lis, right-click them and then VIEW. Dose values are under the line: "accurate deposition along the tracks requested"

  • CMSpp_usrbin_21.lis shows the deposited energy per unit volume in (GeV)/(cm3*prim).
  • The value read at this file is 3.0974E-05 , meaning 3.0974E-05 (GeV)/(cm3*prim)
  • Because 100 of events was set in START card, the number of primaries is 100 (To check this value go to left side bar FLUKA / Input / Primary -> START card, WHAT(1) ).
  • Computing the Total deposited energy after all those events, you need to multiply by 100: GeV /prim * 100 = GeV

  • CMSpp_usrbin_22.lis shows the deposited energy in the whole volume, in (GeV)/(cm3*prim).
  • The value read at this file is 3.8718E+00 , meaning 3.8718E+00 (GeV)/(g*prim)
  • Because 100 of events was set in START card, the number of primaries is 100 (To check this value go to left side bar FLUKA / Input / Primary -> START card, WHAT(1) ).
  • Computing the Total deposited energy after all those events, you need to multiply by 100: GeV /prim * 100 = Gev

Very_simplified_geometry_Total_deposited_energy.png

4.2. Exploring the output of fluence scoring: By using USRTRACK and USRCOLL cards, you will get two additional files: *_xx_sum.lis and *_xx_tab.lis. These files contain readable text output, so to look inside them, select the files *_xx_sum.lis , right-click/View and find the line begining with "Tot. response" there will be the total fluence.

  • In this example you may open the file CMSpp_usrtrack_25_sum.lis which contains Neutron fluence using Track-Length estimator (USRTRACK).
  • The number of particles in the target region is: 607.6976 (particles)/(cm2*prim)
  • This value represents the number of particles in 1 event (1 primary), so to get the Total number of particles after 100 events, multiply the value by 100:
  • 607.6976 * 100 = 60769.76 (particles/cm2)

Very_simplified_geometry_fluence_scoring.png

Inside the *_xx_sum.lis and *_xx_tab.lis files you will find information about fluence as a function of their energy.

Simulations on CMS geometry

Identifying areas:


  • Regions of interest:
    • HF region: R=300, Z=1200
      HE region: R=261, Z=548
      HB region: R=269, Z=429

HF electronics:

In HF , the electronics is hosted in racks which can have a height of ~ 300cm and a base of ~ 100cm x 100cm.

  • Here, The position of HF racks is painted in yellow:

  • HF_in_yellow_3D.png

Warnings in the window console

These ones are because the WHAT(3) field in EMFCUT does not accept "-1" value.

This warning is very important to solve since there is no chance to get output from simulation. Running a simulation, the file CMSpp001.err shows the following message:

Setting EMF leading particle biasing with What(3) of EMFCUT is deprecated!
If you really want EMF leading particle biasing use the EMF-BIAS card instead

Trying to solve this issue, the value in WHAT(3) was changed to "0.0" which means a Default value. BUT IT'S REQUIRED TO ASK TO THE GEOMETRY TEAM WHY THIS VALUE WAS SET TO "-1.0"

Errors_in_input_file.png

  • Due to amount of EMFCUT cards to be changed, a bash script (<a target="_blank" href="https://twiki.cern.ch/twiki/pub/Sandbox/HCALRadiationProject/EMFCUT_W3_to_0.sh" title="EMFCUT_W3_to_0.sh">EMFCUT_W3_to_0.sh</a>) was made to perform an automatic update of the input file. NOTE: If you don't have "mawk" command in your system, change the script and use "awk" instead of "mawk".
  • Exit FLAIR.
  • Put the file inside the working directory:
  • Be sure it has execute permissions:
    • $ chmod 775 EMFCUT_W3_to_0.sh
  • Run it:
    • $ ./EMFCUT_W3_to_0.sh
  • Load the project again.

  • At this point you should see the last four warnings in EMFCUT cards (those are the last EMFCUT lines in CMS geometry):

EMFCUT_errors_2.png

  • Because there is no errors while running the simulation with these 4 warnings, you may avoid changing anything else here.

First simulation

  1. Setting the energy of the beams to 4000 GeV, in SPECSOUR and BEAM cards.
  2. Setting the number of events to 10
  3. Fixing EMFCUT warnings in WHAT(3) field by setting to 0.0
  4. Commenting EMFCUT cards for regions RBCM1F, RBCM1L, RBCM2i, RBCM2o (Their aren't of our interest)
  5. Disable LATTICE card to improve the time of each cycle of simulation. Add an asterisk at the begining of the line 4158 of the file CMSpp.inp . (or right-click->disable card in FLAIR.)
  6. Assign "VACUUM" in the region that LATTICE card was pointing before (R297N). Do it using FLAIR->geometry viewer, or, copy the following text in line 5013 of the file CMSpp.inp :
  7. Disable ROT-DEFI card by adding an asterisk at the begining of line 4163 of the file CMSpp.inp (or right-click->disable card in FLAIR). This card is no more useful since we've disabled LATTICE card.
  8. Setting CASTOR region to air.
    • R467
    • R467a
  9. Creating HF upper and lower racks:
    • Region B468 (ZCC) changed from R=270 to R=250
    • Add the planes to define the racks:
      • YZP x1hfrack 220.0
        YZP x2hfrack 221.0
        XZP y3hfrack 124.0
        XZP y4hfrack 306.0
        XZP y1hfrack -81.0
        XZP y2hfrack 70.0
        XYP z1hfrack 1291.0
        XYP z2hfrack 1345.0
        XYP z3hfrack 1351.0
        XYP z4hfrack 1405.0
    • Define the lower rack and upper rack regions (just one face):
      • HFLRACK 5 x2hfrack -x1hfrack +y2hfrack-y1hfrack +z3hfrack -z1hfrack
        HFURACK 5 x2hfrack -x1hfrack +y4hfrack -y3hfrack +z4hfrack -z2hfrack
    • Modify R293, zone 18 (This is for substract the new created volume)
      • +B468 +B441 -B428 -B596 +Bcut -(x2hfrack -x1hfrack +y2hfrack-y1hfrack +z3hfrack -z1hfrack)
    • Modify R416 (This is for substract the new created volume)
      • +B714 +B441 -B428 -B468 +Bcut -(x2hfrack -x1hfrack+y4hfrack -y3hfrack +z4hfrack -z2hfrack)
    • Assign material to rack regions: (Field -> Magnetic)
      • ASSIGNMA ALUMINUM HFLRACK 1.
        ASSIGNMA ALUMINUM HFURACK 1.
    • Now you should look this:
    • HF-FrontEndRacks1.png
  10. Several scoring cards have been created to get the information about deposited energy, dose, neutron fluence and Charged hadron fluence in the rack plates.The most important and for the plate of the lower rack:
    • USRBIN 10. ENERGY -25. 221. 70. 1351.LRckEn2
      USRBIN 220. -81. 1291. 1. 151. 60.&
      USRBIN 10. DOSE -26. 221. 70. 1351.LRckDos2
      USRBIN 220. -81. 1291. 1. 151. 60.&
      USRBIN 10. NEUTRON -27. 221. 70. 1351.LRckNeu2
      USRBIN 220. -81. 1291. 1. 151. 60.&
      USRBIN 10. HAD-CHAR -28. 221. 70. 1351.LRckChH2
      USRBIN 220. -81. 1291. 1. 151. 60.&
    • USRTRACK -1. NEUTRON -41. HFLRACK 9060. 30.LRckNeu5
      USRTRACK 1E-9 &
      USRTRACK -1. NEUTRON -42. HFLRACK 9060. 20.LRckNeu6
      USRTRACK 1E-3 &
      USRTRACK -1. NEUTRON -43. HFLRACK 9060. 20.LRckNeu7
      USRTRACK 1E-2 &
      USRTRACK -1. HAD-CHAR -44. HFLRACK 9060. 30.LRckChH5
      USRTRACK 1E-9 &
      USRTRACK -1. HAD-CHAR -45. HFLRACK 9060. 20.LRckChH6
      USRTRACK 1E-3 &
      USRTRACK -1. HAD-CHAR -46. HFLRACK 9060. 20.LRckChH7
      USRTRACK 1E-2 &
  11. Take a look of the CMSpp.inp file with all the changes made here for the first simulation: CMSpp.inp.1st_simulation_10events (Download and rename it to CMSpp.inp)

Installing FLUKA in lxplus

Now, it's time to run the simulation and get scoring results of the real geometry of CMS. To perform a huge amount of calculations we may use lxplus, a CERN facility.

INSTALLATION:

  • In your computer, open a linux terminal and access to lxplus (You must have a CERN account):
    • $ ssh myuser@lxplus.cern.ch
  • Look at the command line for the current directory, you must see something like: /afs/cern.ch/user/m/myuser >
  • Go to private directory:
    • cd private
  • First time I tried to install FLUKA-64 bit source package but the installation was not succesfully. (problems with new function names in the libraries of compiler)
  • Second time I tried to install FLUKA-32 RPM package but the installation was not succesfully. (rpm command seems to be not available in lxplus.)
  • Succeeded installing FLUKA 32 bits from the source package. Please, follow the steps below.
  • Download FLUKA 32bits source package (You must have FLUKA account):
  • Create the required environmental variables:
    • > export FLUPRO=/afs/cern.ch/user/m/myuser/private/fluka
    • > export FLUFOR=g77
  • Create fluka directory (remember you are under private dir)
    • > mkdir fluka
  • Copy the source file, uncompress it and make it:
    • > cp fluka2011.2-linuxAA.tar.gz ./fluka
    • > cd ./fluka
    • > tar -zxvf fluka2011.2-linuxAA.tar.gz
    • > make
  • You should see no errors after compling.

Let's test the very simplified geometry:

A SIMPLE WAY, JUST FOR TESTING (not recommended):

  1. First, create a working directory. Exit "fluka" directory ( Now you are in "private" directory)
    • > mkdir working
    • > cd working
  2. Create an environmental variable for all your jobs:
    • > pwd
    • > export MYWORK=/afs/cern.ch/user/m/myuser/private/working
  3. Copy your folder inside "working" directory. As a example use "Very simplified geometry"
  4. Run 1 cycle of the simulation:
    • > $FLUPRO/flutil/rfluka -e $MYWORK/Very_simplified_CMS/CMSpp -M 1 CMSpp


THE OPTIMAL WAY, FOR ALL YOUR JOBS (recommended):

  • Do the steps from 1 to 3
  • Now, let's create a script and then send it to a queue by "bsub" command.
    • > cd .. ## now you are in "working" directory
    • > mkdir output ## here is where we want the ouput files
    • > nano simulate.sh ## copy the lines below
      • export FLUPRO=/afs/cern.ch/user/p/pjacomeh/private/fluka
      • export MYWORK=/afs/cern.ch/user/p/pjacomeh/private/working
      • cp $MYWORK/Very_simplified_CMS/LBQ-KEK.MAP ./
      • cp $MYWORK/Very_simplified_CMS/*.fieldmap ./
      • $FLUPRO/flutil/rfluka -e $MYWORK/Very_simplified_CMS/CMSpp -M 1 $MYWORK/Very_simplified_CMS/CMSpp
      • cp -R * $MYWORK/output/
    • Exit the editing by CTRL+O , ENTER , CTRL+X
    • > bsub -q 1nh simulate.sh

READING THE OUPUT FILES

  • Go to the "ouput" directory, you should see some files: (CMSpp001.err, CMSpp001.log, CMSpp001.out, CMSpp001_fort.19, CMSpp001_fort.21, etc...)
    • > cd output
    • > ls

  • To process a USRBIN output file:
    • > $FLUPRO/flutil/usbsuw
  • Then type the file name "CMSpp001_fort.21", if you did more cycles you will have more files like: "CMSpp002_fort.21".
  • If you did just one cycle type enter key when you are asked for another input file.
  • For output file type: "CMSpp_usrbin_21"
  • To convert the output file to ascii:
    • > $FLUPRO/flutil/usbrea
  • For input file type: "CMSpp_usrbin_21"
  • For output file type: "CMSpp_usrbin_21.lis"
  • Now you can view readable output which is the file CMSpp_usrbin_21.lis

  • To process USRCOLL or USRTRACK output files:
    • $FLUPRO/flutil/ustsuw
  • In this example (Very simplified geometry) the bins 23 and 24 are USRCOLL and bins 25, 26 are USRTRACK, so you can use any of these and proceed as explained before for USRBIN
  • For example: CMSpp001_fort.23
  • To convert to readable text file use $FLUPRO/flutil/usbrea

Installing FLUKA in cmslpc (32 bits)

INSTALLATION:

#!/bin/sh
export FLUPRO=/uscms/home/guerrero/private/fluka
export FLUFOR=/usr/bin/g77
  • Run the script
    • ./init.sh
  • Copy the source file, uncompress it and make it:
    • cp fluka2011.2b-linuxAA.tar.gz ./fluka
    • cd ./fluka
    • tar -zxvf fluka2011.2b-linuxAA.tar.gz
    • make
  • You should see no errors after compling.

Installing FLUKA in cmslpc (64 bits)

INSTALLATION:

#!/bin/sh
export FLUPRO=/uscms/home/guerrero/private/fluka
export FLUFOR=/usr/bin/gfortran
  • Run the script
    • ./init.sh
  • Copy the source file, uncompress it

  • As it was mentioned before, after setting the FLUPRO and FLUFOR variables as described in the instructions, one needs to do two fundamental changes: (a) change the link /bin/sh to /bin/bash instead of /bin/dash, and (b) add some lines to futil/ffluka.sh script. The first one is easy and prevents all fluka scripts, which call shell sh, from collapsing (dash has slightly different syntax). The second is also easy. Just add the following lines:

FLUFOR="gfortran"
FLUARCH="64"

right before this line:

# echo \$FLUARCH = $FLUARCH

in the flutil/ffluka.sh script.

  • Compile it
    • make
  • You will find this message:

"FLUPRO=/uscms/home/username/private/fluka flutil/lfluka -o flukahp -m fluka $FLUPRO = /uscms/home/username/private/fluka gfortran >= 4.6 is required for running FLUKA!"

  • One way to solve this is how I made:
    • SET cmsenv:
      • cd ~/private
      • source /uscmst1/prod/sw/cms/cshrc prod
      • cmsrel CMSSW_5_3_3
      • cd CMSSW_5_3_3/src
      • cmsenv
  • Now you should see no errors after compling.

Deposited Energy and Dose in output FLUKA files

When we are working in FLUKA we can obtained Deposited Energy and Dose using two different cards (X-Y-Z and Dose). Pablo Jacome made a study of what could be the way that these cards work and what may be the normalization factor when we use them.

This is a view of how it looks the Deposited Energy and Dose definition in FLAIR interface:

Deposited_Energy_Dose_cards.png

The guidelines are:

  • If we use USRBIN card definition BY REGION: DEPOSITED ENERGY is in GeV and we take the value as is. DOSE, we must divide this value by the volume of the detector and the result will be in GeV /g.
  • If we use USRBIN card definition BY X-Y-Z: DEPOSITED ENERGY, we must multiply this value times the volume of the detector. Once we do that, the result will be in GeV. DOSE is in GeV /g, and we take the value as is.
You can see in this pdf how was made the study.

Deposited_Energy_and_Dose_OUTPUT_in_FLUKA.pdf

Activation Studies

February 16, 2013

In order to start the activation studies in the HF I started reading about what could help me in this kind of studies. I started using RESNUCLEI card in FLUKA because its a basic card and scored the residual nuclei produced in inelastic interactions on a region basis.

  • The region selected was the HCAL Forward in the CMS geometry original file.
  • I made an union between all regions (R243, R244, R245, R246, R238, R239,R240, R241, R233, R234, R235, R236, R230, R231) that compound the HF and define the RESNUCLE as you can see here:

Resnuclei_Cards.png

  • It was scored
    • Spallation products (all inelastic interactions except those induced byneutrons below the threshold for multigroup treatment).
    • Low energy products, i.e. those produced by neutron below the threshold for multigroup treatment.
  • Finally, the simulation was sent it to lxbatch system at CERN. I sent an simulation with 25000 primaries.

February 21, 2013

The files of the simulation cannot be processed directly in lxplus. The message is the next:

    • > start: end of file
    • > apparent state: unit 14 named fort.14
    • > lately reading sequential unformatted external IO

I found a solution about the problem in here. It appears to be that is usual this kind of mistake using RESNUCLEI http://www.fluka.org/web_archive/earchive/prova/1151.html

February 25, 2013

I tried to implement the solution but nothing happened with the mistake. My solution was process data in my PC.

    • The script I used to process data it had the same form as I used before in lxplus and the data was process!!. Maybe could be the version of FLUKA I have in lxplus that had the problem. In my PC I used the newest version of FLUKA.
    • The results of my simulation were the next:

Resnuclei.pdf

March 2, 2013

I investigated information about activation studies in FLUKA. I found we can define different input CARDS which give us differents magnitudes for radiation studies:

  • RADDECAY: Requests simulation of decay of produced radioactive nuclides allows to modify biasing and transport thresholds (defined with other cards) for application to the transport of decay radiation.

  • IRRPROFI: Definition of an irradiation profile (irradiation times and intensities).

  • DCYTIMES: Definition of decay (cooling ) time.

  • DCYSCORE: Associates scoring detectors (radio-nuclides, fluence, dose) with different cooling times.

  • AUXSCORE: Allows to associate scoring estimators with auxiliary (generalized) particle distributions and dose equivalent conversion factors.

An important point is that these cards work together with USRBIN, USRTRACK AND RESNUCLE cards


Real Model of Racks for simulation of Dose

March 14, 2013


A rack real model is ready to be simulated. The simulation aims to estimate the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) in the next part of the racks

  • Metal case (aluminium)
  • Motherboards (silicon)
  • Air inside the rack

You can see the model in the next pictures:

Both racks in the HCAL Forward

Front-Racks.png

Vertical motherboards which are made of silicon inside the up rack.

Front-UpRack.png

Vertical motherboards which are made of silicon inside the lower rack.

Front-LowRack.png



Reports

Reports of HCAL estimates on cms-docdb

Preliminary Results of Total Ionizing Dose and Fluence in the Front End Electronics at HF (8TeV pp collisions)

Abstract: This simulation aims to estimate the Total Ionizing Dose (TID), Neutrons and Charged Hadrons Fluence in the front-end electronics in the HCAL Forward (HF). Integrated results in a high-luminosity scenario of 3000 fb−1 and 8TeV pp collisions. The object studied was a 3 plates rack made of aluminium in the position of HF-FEE.

HF-Radiation-Project-v2.pdf


Estimated by Pablo Jácome

Preliminary Results of Total Ionizing Dose and Fluence in the Front End Electronics at HF (14TeV pp collisions)

Abstract: This simulation aims to estimate the Total Ionizing Dose (TID), Neutrons and Charged Hadrons Fluence in the front-end electronics in the HCAL Forward (HF). Integrated results in a high-luminosity scenario of 3000 fb−1 and 14TeV pp collisions. TID was measured in air, aluminum and silicon blocks located in the HF-FEE.

HF-Radiation-Project-v31.pdf

Estimated by Pablo Jácome

Total Ionizing Dose and Fluence in the Front End Electronics at HF (14TeV pp collisions)

Abstract: This simulation aims to estimate the Total Ionizing Dose (TID), Neutrons and Charged Hadrons Fluence in the front-end electronics in the HCAL Forward (HF). Integrated results in a high-luminosity scenario of 3000 fb−1 and 14TeV pp collisions. The estimation was made in a 3 plates rack made of silicon in the position of HF-FEE. It was made a comparison with the results of Pablo Jácome and other references.

Report: FluenceandDoseintheHFFEE.pdf

Estimated by Daniel Guerrero

Total Ionizing Dose in the Front End Electronics at HF using the a realistic rack model (14TeV pp collisions)

Abstract: This work aims to estimate the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) in a high luminosity scenario of 3000fb-1 in the Front End Electronics of the HCAL Forward (HF) in the CMS detector. The task was to create a more realistic racks than the ones created before. The simulation was made in FLUKA based on the CMS Geometry provided by Moritz Guthoff. This work gives us an important result, the TID estimated by FLUKA statistics, depends of the distribution of the silicon inside the racks. The estimation were made in the electronic motherboards (for convenience made of silicon) usually located inside the HF-FEE racks.

Report: DoseintheHFFEE_Rackmodel.pdf

Estimated by Daniel Guerrero

Activation in a small region in the HF (Testing simulations)

Abstract: Estimation of the number of residual nuclei(stables and unstables) produced per pp collision at 14TeV in a small region of the HCAL Forward (HF). Furthermore, It was calculated Isotope Yield as a function of Mass Number, isotope Yield as a function of Mass Number and Isomers. It was studied a small region inside the HF detector.

Report: ActivationintheHF.pdf

Estimated by Daniel Guerrero

Activity and Ambient equivalent dose in the HF for different cooling times (Testing Simulations)

Abstract: This was an estimation of the decay of the unstables nuclei produced per pp collision in the materials of the HF detector. Furthermore, the Ambient Equivalent Dose was calculed at the HF region, after a continuous operation of the LHC with an integrated luminosity of 315.36 fb-1 in different cooling times : 1 hour, 8 hours, 1 day, 7 days, 1 month, 4 months.

Report: ActivityandAEDintheHF.pdf

Estimated by Daniel Guerrero

Topic attachments
I Attachment History Action Size Date Who Comment
PDFpdf ActivationintheHF.pdf r1 manage 214.8 K 2014-02-03 - 01:23 DanielGuerrero  
PDFpdf ActivityandAEDintheHF.pdf r1 manage 942.5 K 2014-02-03 - 01:23 DanielGuerrero  
PNGpng CMS-compile-executable2.png r1 manage 11.8 K 2012-06-22 - 00:41 PabloJacome error message when compiling
PNGpng CMS-fluka-project-information-executable.png r1 manage 8.0 K 2012-06-21 - 17:15 PabloJacome executable file for the project
PNGpng CMS-geometry.png r1 manage 243.0 K 2012-06-21 - 16:45 PabloJacome CMS geometry in FLAIR
Unknown file formatgz CMS_simulation.tar.gz r1 manage 689.8 K 2013-06-19 - 23:56 DanielGuerrero  
Unknown file formatgz CMS_simulation1.tar.gz r1 manage 689.8 K 2013-06-19 - 23:54 DanielGuerrero  
Unknown file format1st_simulation CMSpp.inp.1st_simulation r1 manage 239.3 K 2012-07-30 - 14:27 PabloJacome CMSpp.inp file ready for the 1st simulation
Unknown file format1st_simulation_10events CMSpp.inp.1st_simulation_10events r1 manage 239.3 K 2012-07-30 - 14:41 PabloJacome CMSpp.inp file ready for the 1st simulation, 10 events
Unknown file formatemfcut_fixed CMSpp.inp.EMFCUT_fixed r1 manage 232.8 K 2012-07-26 - 01:46 PabloJacome CMS geometry with EMFCUT cards modified
Unknown file formatno_lattice CMSpp.inp.EMFCUT_fixed.NO_LATTICE r1 manage 232.9 K 2012-07-26 - 01:47 PabloJacome CMS geometry with EMFCUT cards modified and without LATTICE
Unknown file formathfracks1_created CMSpp.inp.HFracks1_created r1 manage 234.0 K 2012-07-28 - 20:55 PabloJacome HF racks position. Just one face of the box
Unknown file formatlattice_emfcut CMSpp.inp_withBOX_NO.LATTICE_EMFCUT r1 manage 233.8 K 2012-07-26 - 23:41 PabloJacome  
PNGpng Deposited_Energy_Dose.png r1 manage 27.3 K 2013-03-02 - 05:52 DanielGuerrero  
PNGpng Deposited_Energy_Dose_cards.png r4 r3 r2 r1 manage 54.6 K 2013-03-02 - 06:53 DanielGuerrero  
PDFpdf Deposited_Energy_and_Dose_OUTPUT_in_FLUKA.pdf r1 manage 137.6 K 2013-03-02 - 05:06 DanielGuerrero  
PDFpdf DoseintheHFFEE_Rackmodel.pdf r1 manage 1311.7 K 2014-02-03 - 01:23 DanielGuerrero  
Unix shell scriptsh EMFCUT_W3_to_0.sh r1 manage 0.6 K 2012-07-15 - 00:03 PabloJacome  
PNGpng EMFCUT_errors_2.png r1 manage 3.2 K 2012-07-23 - 17:56 PabloJacome EMFCUT_last_4_warnings
PNGpng Errors_in_input_file.png r1 manage 14.8 K 2012-07-14 - 23:30 PabloJacome  
PDFpdf FluenceandDose.pdf r1 manage 194.2 K 2013-11-01 - 20:31 DanielGuerrero  
PDFpdf FluenceandDoseintheHFFEE.pdf r1 manage 194.2 K 2014-02-03 - 01:23 DanielGuerrero  
PNGpng Front-LowRack.png r1 manage 8.5 K 2013-03-16 - 22:42 DanielGuerrero  
PNGpng Front-Racks.png r1 manage 49.7 K 2013-03-16 - 22:42 DanielGuerrero  
PNGpng Front-UpRack.png r1 manage 15.7 K 2013-03-16 - 22:42 DanielGuerrero  
PNGpng HE.png r1 manage 92.8 K 2012-06-27 - 17:42 PabloJacome  
PNGpng HF-FrontEndRacks1.png r1 manage 74.9 K 2012-07-28 - 20:54 PabloJacome HF racks position. Just one face of the box
PDFpdf HF-Radiation-Project-v2.pdf r1 manage 3228.4 K 2012-08-10 - 19:43 PabloJacome Preliminary results
PDFpdf HF-Radiation-Project-v31.pdf r1 manage 781.0 K 2013-11-06 - 20:36 DanielGuerrero  
PNGpng HF.png r1 manage 119.3 K 2012-06-27 - 17:57 PabloJacome  
PNGpng HF_in_yellow_3D.png r1 manage 145.3 K 2012-07-14 - 23:17 PabloJacome  
PDFpdf Inform_for_Tullio.pdf r1 manage 194.2 K 2013-11-01 - 20:27 DanielGuerrero  
PDFpdf Report_Activation.pdf r1 manage 214.8 K 2013-08-27 - 06:12 DanielGuerrero  
PDFpdf Report_Dose.pdf r2 r1 manage 1311.7 K 2013-08-27 - 21:50 DanielGuerrero  
PDFpdf Report_Radiation.pdf r2 r1 manage 942.5 K 2013-08-27 - 21:26 DanielGuerrero  
PDFpdf Resnuclei.pdf r1 manage 434.7 K 2013-03-02 - 09:06 DanielGuerrero  
PNGpng Resnuclei_Cards.png r1 manage 7.0 K 2013-03-02 - 08:16 DanielGuerrero  
PDFpdf Simulation_with_14TeV_and_silicon.pdf r1 manage 187.3 K 2013-03-02 - 03:52 DanielGuerrero  
Compressed Zip archivezip Very_simplified_CMS.zip r1 manage 6362.8 K 2012-07-15 - 06:21 PabloJacome Very simplified geometry used to learn scoring.
PNGpng Very_simplified_geometry_Total_deposited_energy.png r1 manage 37.7 K 2012-07-15 - 16:15 PabloJacome Energy deposited in a Very simplified geometry
PNGpng Very_simplified_geometry_fluence_scoring.png r1 manage 53.4 K 2012-07-16 - 05:52 PabloJacome Very simplified geometry fluence scoring
PNGpng box_position.png r1 manage 143.5 K 2012-07-26 - 23:19 PabloJacome Position of the electronics (1 cm thick Aluminium box)
Unknown file formateps fluence.eps r1 manage 26.7 K 2012-06-27 - 18:08 PabloJacome  
Unknown file formatext geometry-flair-example r1 manage 89.6 K 2012-06-21 - 04:14 PabloJacome geometry-flair-example
PNGpng initial_detector.png r1 manage 82.0 K 2012-06-27 - 17:25 PabloJacome  
PNGpng plot-example-deposited-energy-flair.png r1 manage 82.2 K 2012-06-21 - 04:07 PabloJacome Deposited energy plot - example
PNGpng process.png r1 manage 38.9 K 2012-07-15 - 06:33 PabloJacome Process output files of scoring, Very simplified geometry scoring example
PNGpng scorings.png r1 manage 82.3 K 2012-07-15 - 06:24 PabloJacome Scoring definitions for a very simplified geometry
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Topic revision: r54 - 2016-03-11 - DanielGuerrero
 
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